pic 1 is inside of card
pic 2 is the outside of card
I make these cards for encouragement to my followers at EVC Church.
pic 1 is inside of card
pic 2 is the outside of card
I make these cards for encouragement to my followers at EVC Church.
My cold, cold heart is melted now
I seek for peace but don’t know how
I go to bed but only weep
My cold, cold heart won’t let me sleep
Your lonesome voice that seems to say
Your cold, cold heart will pay and pay
My tears pour down like falling rain
Through restless sleep I call your name
Perhaps someday beyond the blue
We’ll meet sweetheart and live anew
Where cold, cold hearts can’t enter in
We’ll laugh and love, sweetheart, again
My cold, cold heart is melted now
My once proud head I humbly bow
Your lonely face in dreams I see
My cold, cold heart has told on me
HOW FAR IS HEAVEN LYRICS
How far is heaven? Let’s go tonight
I want my daddy to hold me tight
A little girl was waiting for her daddy one day
It was time to meet him, when she heard her mommy say
Come to mommy darling, please do not cry
Daddy’s gone to heaven, way up in the sky
How far is heaven? When can I go?
To see my daddy, he’s there I know
How far is heaven? Let’s go tonight
I want my daddy to hold me tight
He was called so suddenly, and could not say goodbye
I know that he’s in heaven, we’ll meet him by and by
The little girl trembled, her tears she could not hide
She looked up for heaven and then she replied
How far is heaven? When can I go?
To see my daddy, he’s there I know
How far is heaven? Let’s go tonight
I want my daddy to hold me tight
I was fortunate enough to have a father that had a wonderful voice and could play the guitar. Many of nights I would go to bed hearing him sing to my mother. By today’s standards the songs would be depressing…. that was the theme of 1950-60″s country and western music.
My sister inherited my father’s singing talent, although she rarely sings. I learned how to play the guitar- though not very well- by ear. My father could not read sheet music and I never tried to learn how. My daughters Rose and Kassidey were quiet the music guru’s, Rose would play the clarinet in her room. I would sit at the foot of the stairs and just listen to her play for hours. Kassidey kept switching instruments at the whim of the band directors. Both girls loved the marching band and spirit nights at school. Robert & I worked at the snack bar at all the games for six years.
You know you have to have some breaks of good in your childhood or you become psychotic. Memories can be wonderful things, nostalgic even. My dearest, Robert took some guitar lessons a couple of years ago and played “Happy Birthday” to me— it was wonderful to my ears. His hands stay riddled with swelling and arthritis so he can’t play now. He attempted to teach Zack on his child sized guitar. But like all children Zack goes through learning phases and didn’t really like learning the guitar.
I love to sign, but can’t carry a tune in a bucket, so I sing to myself anyways. Good thing church is big and the band is loud. Speaking of bands, my uncles and aunts would get together every time we visited maw-maw- and paw-paw. They were all very talented. We children would be sent to bed early and fall asleep to their gospel music. My uncle Loyal made a record in prison. My brother has it in his keeping like everything else of value from our father’s estate.
My grandparents lived in the mountains of north-east Alabama in a rural area of Piedmont. They lived directly on the side of a mountain– its steepness started at ten feet from the back stoop. The front stoop was about four feet off the ground and they had a huge log halfway up to climb on to get into the front door. It was always a task to climb up for anyone. They had a water well, smoke house, hog pen, and outhouse (the latter of) that no one used. You went privy outside by a tree and hope you didn’t get snake bit. They endured a land slide that almost wiped them off the hill, and a bear break-in that ransacked the kitchen. They did not have indoor plumbing of any sort. They had a kitchen sink that the girl children would was dishes in and take the bucket outside and slosh it on the ground when done.
The floors were made of rough pine wood soaked in coal oil, so your feet bottoms were always black and you had to wash them from the bedside every night. The six rooms were large and had a huge fireplace in the main sleeping room. It sure did get cold on the mountain at night. Speaking of night, the stars were absolutely wonderful to behold. You couldn’t see to the end of your nose it was so pitch black until you looked up and the whole world was opened up. and you were little all over again.
Tonight, a lady from my bible study group was careflighted to the hospital. She was placed on a ventilator and tested for coronavirus causing COVID-19, we are waiting on the test results. Her family is not allowed at the hospital to be with her, even though she is elderly- it’s too great a risk with the hospital staff not knowing her diagnosis. My heart ands prayers are with her all evening and night long. May God be gracious in his mercy and tend to her needs.
Robert and I were trying to remember if we had any contact with mutual friends in the past three weeks. It was mind-boggling because a visit from a mutual friend could expose us if they were exposed, according to the last news update. (A friend of a friend is your enemy.)
Social distancing, hand washing, masks, gloves and staying sheltered is the best preventative measure one can take against a flu virus. (Cleanliness is next to Godliness.) There is a shortage on cleaning solutions, hand sanitizers, and masks in the stores, as people try to protect their families. Wiping carts down or and wearing gloves in the grocery store is the best preventative and the mask , and six feet separation of course.
I am enjoying my time with my families during their haitatisis from school and work. I am helping Nate with his lessons and Kassi is helping Zack with his lessons. It’s more hand-holding as they gain self-efficacy in their assignments. The President Trump said schools are to remain closed through May 4th, 2020. They most likely will not resume school afterwards, but continue the distance learning. They will probably have one or two days at the end to return their books and gather their personal effects from their cubbies or lockers at school.
Have you ever looked back upon your life and seen a cross road?
When I was in 5th grade, I was a brown mouse — a little chubby but not fat just healthy looking. I had a southern states accent and not any friends at school. This wonderful woman Mrs. Wait took me under her wing, so to speak. She believed I was smart and told me so, even though my grades were C’ and D’s. She saw potential in me and encouraged me to write poetry.
When I was in my second semester of university, I was a wren- a little chubbier but healthy looking. I had lost my southern drawl by now after years of self-correction. I was failing college or rather it was failing me. Then, I met Dr. Edythe Leupp, a Teacher Education Advisor and Instructor took me under her wing, so to speak. She believed I was smart and told me so, even though my grades were D’s. She saw potential in me and encouraged me to write poetry. I published my first book of poetry and short stories a few years later, “The Dreamers Soul”.
Under her praise and tutlege I started earning A’s and nothing has stopped me since. You see, I had thought I was stupid and that the university was too hard for someone like me. (1st person to get GED and attend university in my family). I was on the verge of quitting. My Science professors thought poorly of my academics and let me know, I was down in the dump in my Socio-Psychology class. I sat in my desk long after everyone else had left, except this silver haired lady. She introduced herself and bought me a soda pop. I told her my troubles with college and she told me that I was underestimating myself and that I was smart and she would love to be my advisor. I was shocked all the other Science professors took turns advising me or passing me off to someone else, is more like it.
You can bet I was shocked to receive an A score in a course. I thought she had given it to me, but she beled that notion and said I had earned it; and it would be one of many to come — except in Science classes- they saw me as dumb (I only received 1 B).
Now, as I have three classes to go to complete my Master’s program, I have earned two B’s and ten A’s. I am currently taking two classes. I feel as though I am humbly smart, because of two very important womens point of view. My husband and children thought I was smart and still are. I may have not contributed much to working these past twenty-five years (mental-illness) but I have passed on the tenant that you must have faith in children and believe they are smart- even when statistics are screaming that they are stupid. We all learn in different capacities and having self-care is essential on the outcome produced by having faith in oneself.
If you are a teacher, and you are seeing a pattern in your low-functioning students– start praising them for anything sincerely. They may not have made a high score on that paper but they worked hard on three of the problems and it shows, given more time they would have maybe gotten it; so praise them for their effort. If you believe in them they will learn to believe in themselves, too.
Pandemic is a scary term with frightening implications. God assures us that in the midst of all terror he is with us as our protector. He tells us not to be afraid, but be strong and courageous. Basically, it means God has our back!
Our daily lives are disrupted with inconveniences like no work or school and being in seclusion and practicing social distancing when we are grocery store “hopping” to find necessities. The flip side is that we get to spend time with our family. We take time to teach them things they need to know beyond academics and instill them with hope and faith that all will be well, as GOD has promised. See post “Scriptures of Faith”.
I think with the media there is mass hysteria. I’m telling you to remain calm. Yes, the Coronavirus (COVID-19) is frightening, anyone with good common sense know that its’ not good to get it. But taking precautions like hand washing and social distancing and even self-seclusion are wise practices.
We should all pray to GOD for his help in this pandemic. He hears our cries and is faithful to answer.
For those of us who do not have Coronavirus (COVID-19) or Influenza A, we should rejoice and be happy that we made it through this season unscathed. Jesus tells us to “be of good cheer- for he is with us.” For those who have the flu virus, I’m sorry that you are sick, my heart goes out to you. Being sick is no fun and can be depressing as your body fights off the intruder of disease. The world is praying for you and themselves for this pandemic to end.
Remember to be kind to one another… this pandemic can bring out the worst in people because of fear. But have faith and courage to do what is right and forgive those who are whinney or hateful. Remember this is just a season in our lives and it will pass with time. Take care and be safe. Kat
Here are some scriptures to help you keep your faith strong: Joshua 1:9 Psalm 46:10 Psalm 91 Isaiah 41:10 Isaiah 41:13 1 Corinthians 16:13 Hebrews 11:1 Hebrews 13:5-6 As we face this worldwide challenge together, all of us at Joyce Meyer Ministries want to encourage you—you are not alone! God promises that He will be with us and He will never leave us or forsake us (see Joshua 1:5; Hebrews 13:5).
Joshua 1:9 Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go.
Psalm 46:10 Be still, and know that I am God; I will be exalted among the nations, I will be exalted in the earth,
Psalm 91: 1. He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty. 2. I will say of the Lord, “He is my refuge and my fortress, my GOD, in whom I trust.
Psalm 91: 4. “Because he loves me, ” I will rescue him, I will protect him, for he acknowledges my name. :15 He will call upon me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him with long life will I satisfy him and show him my salvation.”
Isaiah 41:10 So do not fear, for I am with you; do not be dismayed, for I am your God. I will strengthen you and help you; I will uphold you with my righteous right hand. v13 For I am the LORD, your God, who takes hold of your right hand and says to you, Do not fear, I will help you. v14a Do not be afraid.
Corinthians 16:13 Be on your guard; stand firm in the faith; be men of courage; be strong. v14 Do everything in love.
Hebrews 11:1 Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see.
Hebrews 13:5-6 … The Lord God has said “Never will I leave you; Never will I forsake you.” v6 So we can say with confidence, “The LORD is my helper, I will not be afraid. What can man do to me?”
Approximately December 13th, 2019, my dog Summer and I were playing and she pounced on my abdomen like always, but this time she scratched my skin about an inch. I ignored it as no big deal. I noticed the area below it looked kinda bruised and assumed it was from Summer’s pouncing. On December 15th, I called the pastor and told him I couldn’t make the intercessory prayer that day – response no problem. I kept feeling like I had the flu, sleeping allot. The 20-23rd I had a temperature that was high. Kassidey came in every 4 hours and gave me fever reducer. I hallucinated and had delusions when my temperature reached 104* F. Finally, my fever broke and I told Kassidey my tummy hurt. SHe thought I meant food. I corrected her. She took a look and got Robert to come look. THey took me to Harris Methodist Hospital emergency room on Dec 24th, where I was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.
I had developed a wound that was Septic- blood poisoning- infection. Then a cat scan of my abdomen revealed a tumor on my left kidney and infection . Surgery on the lower left medial abdomen was performed the next day. They created an incision 21.5cm long, by 5cm wide and 11.5cm deep and removed all tissue from that area creating an open wound. A few days later on January 2nd, 2020, an machine called a Wound Vac was installed in the wound, to remove drainage of body fluids.
I had a negative reaction to the anesthesia, they thought I had a mini stroke. My left side drifted downwards. An MRI of my brain was performed and I was okay. I was moved out of ICU the 4th day. I was treated very well by all of the staff, doctors and nurses, dieticians and therapist. On the 20th day of treatment I was transferred to West Lake Center of Care (Rehabilitation) in White Settlement, TX. at 8:40 p.m.
The Wound-Vac had been removed and the wound was packed with a dressing. I arrived at West lake and asked the nurses Musfasausfa and Kaye to change my dressing as it was wet and my gown was soaked to. They refused and said it would be changed in the morning. They gave me towels to absorb some of the bodily fluids while I slept. At 12:30 a.m. I tried using the call button, then again at 3:33 a.m. no one came until 5:30 a.m. I texted Robert of my situation throughout the night. It was almost 9:00 a.m. before the wound nurses arrived to change the dressing out and install the wound vac. I had laid in my body waste for 12 + hours.
I discovered the next day that the call light did not work at all. I told them if that was their method for contact then they needed to get it fixed immediately. It took five days for the maintenance to look at the problem and replace the call light and install light bulbs in the two room sconces- there was limited lighting in the dismal room until then. I was a fall risk due to my seizure disorder and weaken state. In the meanwhile, I had to go to the door and hope to catch someone passing by, we did try holding the button on the call light for 10 seconds, release, and repeat. That was not successful.
The weather stripping had come loose from the window and cold air was coming though, I complained my room was too cold and the staff agreed with me. I had two small thin twin size blankets that I brought with me. I asked for another clinic blanket and was told there were not any available. So I shivered until finally I went to sleep.
I am a diabetic patient. The dietician brought me another persons meal that had her name scratched out and my put in its place. It was a puree food plate…. it was awful, I tried to eat it but couldn’t tolerate it/ I was given another meal. The food manager Greg, came to see me, he took down my allergies and sensitivities to green veggies and some preferences. I thought great- wonderful service finally. Well, that was not to be. I was given a regular salt laden diet. I couldn’t eat the entree it was so salty. I send word to Greg about the salt. So they make an effort to not salt my food. However, even though they had it written on my meal ticket , no salt, peanut, or green vegetables (twice) I was brought meals with salads, broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, etc. until the day before I left their service, then I was given to servings of mashed potatoes with gravy. For two days, I vomited my food after consumption, I lost 6 1/2 pounds that 1st week. I didn’t recheck to see if I had lost more when I left.
Friday. I am supposed to be discharged on Saturday, the Nurses were attentive now that the call light system worked, it still took over an hour for the nurses to respond to my request to see a nurse. The technician always came within 15 minutes of using the call light. The rental wound vac was put on incorrectly and the alarm would sound every two minutes all day and night long. I was sent home Saturday with it malfunctioning. I called the wound vac technical support and they walked me through testing the unit and determining how to fix leaks, change the canister out, then realize the issue is with the connection of it self to me was faulty. All Saturday night I stayed awake pushing the alarm off button, until sleep finally claimed me for three hours- alarm still in force. Sunday, an emergency call nurse came and changed out the wound vac and the unit worked great afterwards, no alarms going off.
Orange and brown leaves decking the halls in
garland and wreaths, with pumpkins scattered on the hearth.
A traditional Thanksgiving Day is rolling through the Fall,
Turkey and ham, cranberry pudding, and sweet potato pie
adorn the serving table in style.
Mother’s and fathers, children, and aunt’s, uncles, and cousin’s, and friends
adore the festivities of the Macy’s Store Parade and football touchdowns.
Bittersweet memories of those long ago are shared around the firelight
in hopes of bringing story-telling to a new young generation.
Thanksgiving is sharing with caring and hopes of a happy gathering
that makes one glow inside.
Happy Thanksgiving to one and all.
Falling, drifting, sparkling, covering the ground like a white blanket, burning, stinging, biting into your flesh, an icy storm, raging across the mountain.
(Challenge to write imagery to go with the above poem, author is unknown. )
Free fall, drifting along the currents, sun reflection so bright
covering the ground like a white blanket, my parachute opens
burning, stinging hot pin points of pain as I land on rocks
biting into your flesh, teeth so sharp they leave their mark,
an icy storm, so frigid the fingers of cold laces my arms,
raging across the mountain, I am lost.
I don’t think there is anything graceful about aging. Yet here we are getting older by the minutes passing us by. Creating a bucket list, dream list, or fantasy list is an excellent idea for lofty goals to attain over a lifetime of living. But it is only a list and can be easily discarded.
What will your remunerations be as you lay dying of old age and worn out parts? Did you attack your bucket list with a vengence seeking thrills and adventures or was your buscket list one of daily tasks?
My Bucket List
My Fantasy List
Notice I didn’t mention that I want to work as in a career and thus be defined by it. I think people lose themselves by a working title. They shape their lives around employment. Taking opportunities, working ethically, making strides to be all that they can be in their job position.
It has been my experience that people will often allow work to interfere with family time and God time. They become so much apart of their job that when they retire or a forced to retire they have to invent a new identity or die. If they take time to build relationships with people and God, develop hobbies, or have a bucket list, dream list, or fantasy list then they will fare through aging gracefully.
Our adventure in Real Estate continues. We purchased a house in July 2019. It is 3/4th the size of our previous home. The house had to have 19 piers put in before we moved in. This caused cracks in the walls and unaligned doors to occur which also had to be repaired, then painted. The back door fell off frame and all, when we tried to open it. Robert had to replace the framing and insulate it properly.
Week negative 1- The previous owners set it up so that the septic tank would be replaced and installed- it took 3 weeks after move in to get it done, with false promises from the contractor. The septic contractor had the hole dug and left it open for a week and a half, before having the tank brought in. Their sub-contractor brought a smaller tank and was trying to get us to accept it- we didn’t. Finally, it is installed. But the contractor had placed the dirt on the fence and tore it down while digging the hole. They said they were not responsible for the fence damages. They haphazardly filled in the hole around the septic tank and left big clods of dirt and a big pile of dirt on the fence, they do not come back to finish the job of leveling the soil.
Week One- We did a final walk-thru but missed that the interior of the master bath had pieces of ceramic tile that had fallen down. Our contractor said there was black mold growing, so the entire wall would have to be replaced and treated. And the other bathroom had to have the sewage line replaced to the tub and toilet.
Week Two- The city cooperative water department visits us to repair a leak at the main water supply. They break our side of the main and shoddily fix it, as it is leaking the next day when we inspect it. We call them out again to repair it. it takes them another week to return to repair it.
Week Three the 18th day of home ownership. The water company said we have a leak somewhere on our side of the main. They are nice enough to help us look in the front and side yards. They detect a puddle by the front porch — it had rained allot since we moved in, and we thought it was rain water pooled.
We call American Home Shield out. Their contractor told them that it was a pre-existing condition. We contact AHS again and they send another plummer out. He could not find the leak, but accessed the area to be under our bedroom floor somewhere and the hallway. Their solution was to jack hammer up the floor. AHS decided that the problem was pre-existing and denied the claim.
So call our plummer out, the one who had worked on the sewage. They said we were losing 1 gallon per 2-3 minutes of water and showed us how to cut the water off and on at the main. They found the leaks- three under the bathroom, and bedroom and hallway by tunneling. It was decided to replace the entire line so they cut the line off at the bathroom and trenched around the house and installed two water cutoffs and reconnected everything, then filled it back in and leveled the soil. That was a $3,500.00 discounted project. Can we say Ca-Ching!
Week Four- The driveway had old asphalt roofing shingles laid down as a road bed, covered by grass and weeds. We had a contractor come out and removed the dirt mound from the septic tank and off the broken fence, and level it out and create a driveway with recycled asphalt. It is smooth and looks good.
Week Five- Robert had to shem the front door because air flow (sunlight) could be seen around the entire door, paper wood-board had been used in the beginning, so he ripped that out and put in solid wood framing. We built a new fence to replace the one destroyed by the contractors. It still has to be painted.
Our next project is to paint the exterior of the house. It is in peeling condition on the trim. We knew about this project in the beginning before we bought the house.
When it rains it really does pour, sometimes its a soft rain, and at other times its like batten down the hatches there she blows.
Home ownership this time around has been extremely stressful. But we are trying to calm down and find a bright side to it. The house has been practically rebuilt. We had to buy new kitchen appliances when we moved in — don’t ask! And things are starting to come together. We are going through the buildings and seeing what we can find for the inside of out house and what can be donated or sold in the future.
I played the game and lost in round one.
We had a home picked out to purchase. On dy one we offer a n amount for the property and they realtor for the seller says that they need more money to pay the closing costs, so we agree to the counter offer.
We paid the inspection fee and waited ten days for the decision to buy the home or cancel the contract. On day ten, we are told that there is an issue with the build line. The house is 14 inches over the build line encroaching on the street side. The realtor said there had never been an issue with it before. The title company said they would continue to look into the issue.
So we go ahead an order an appraisal to be done. The next day the sellers tell our realtor that they can’t afford to do the repairs and asks that we pay for them so the FHA loan will go through. We said no to their request.
The sellers seem to be waffling back and forth about selling. They finally give us access to the property for the appraiser to come after cancelling prior -appointment; we are charged by the appraisal company for their missed appointment. We have a builder contractor meet us and the appraiser is there. The appraiser comes out of the bathroom chuckling and shaking his head. The are live ducks swimming in the bathtub. The appraiser puts in his report then adjusts it later; to the asking price.
The contractor measures everything and we start looking for materials and buying them to pick up on the day of closing set for three weeks in the future. I arrange for the utilities to be turned on of the day of closing. I arranged for three contractors to begin work the following day of closing. We are having to have dirt work to correct the water flow onto the home. We are having buildings built, and we are having new flooring and painting done through out the home.
Seven days before closing we are hit with the bombshell that more is owed on the property than the sellers realtor has stated on day one. We immediately terminate the contract for breech of contract on the sellers part. I have to cancel the utilities, insurance carrier, and contractors. I have to cancel the materials purchased.
The stress and strain on us for the five weeks of underwriting, waiting on the results from the commissioner in charge of property easements, abatements, and assessments of right of way, was grueling. We lost time, money, and a little bit of sanity; and the opportunities of finding another house in our allotted time frame.
Now I am onto round two in my striving to buy a house. Already it is above board with the sellers realtor, and we should be able to purchase it within the month of June 2019 if the appraisal and inspection reports come back positive. My realtor is looking out for us this time around again. We are being cautious and prudent in our decisions. Emotions are not a factor this time around. We are trusting in our realtor to keep us informed again.
Whether its floppy eared bunny rabbits, painted eggshells, and
candy coated bunnies, Easter is a beginning of an ending for Christians everywhere.
For God, the creator of all galaxies, universes, planets, and living beings created us and loved us and it was good. Then a jealous being, Satan, and 1/3 of all heavens angels decided to make war with God, a great battle was fought, people were used as pawns for the Satans schemes.
Yet, God loved us people so much that he sent his only son begotten of human fleash and bone and containing his holy spirit to Earth. His son was Jesus the Christ child. Jesus was a teacher, a servant, a selfless person in giving to others, a grist for a millstone, and sacrifice for life.
Jesus walked and talked to many people, he healed and fed the multitudes of people. Yet, Satan caused jealousy and strife among the peoples of Earth. And the people took up arms and arrested Jesus while he was praying.
And Jesus was tortoured and nailed to a tree in cruxicfiction until death overtook him. And the deciples wept and shook with fear, for they knew that Jesus’ time was near. As Jesus said goodbye, he proclaimed the battle finished. There was a great sound in the heavens and and God was sadden by what the people had done. Three days later, the ground shook, the stone was rolled away, the viel between the heavens and the Earth was fianlly torn, as Jesus rose from death to live once again.
Upon his death he let out a cry for victory over Satan and his evil angles called demons, for all eternity. So Satan and his deamons fled to Earth that day.
Though the human didn’t deserve it God gave his grace of forgiveness for the bad things that people were want to do and called it his grace. H only asked that the people beleive and trust in his comfort after the great battle was fianlly won.
And wehn we leave this earthly body, we will be restored to a whole new body as it was in the beginning, so very long ago. And Jesus told his deciples to look toward the east, for that is whence he will come again, to take all of us back home. And Satan and his demons were driven out of heaven for all eternity.
It will be interesting to see if my articles will transfer to the new “free” domain.
I have enjoyed writing and listening to the comments from my followers. Thank you for the encouragements. I hope to continue to hear from you in the future my email address is email@example.com, send me a post.
Author: HOPE Ministry at Eagles View Church reviewed on March 26, 2019
Types of Therapies: Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists
PSYCHODYNAMIC (and psychoanalytic) THEORY AND THERAPY
This is one of the oldest theories of psychology in which patients are viewed within a model of illness or “what is lacking.” Individuals are seen as being made up from a “dynamic” that begins in early childhood and progresses throughout life. This psychodynamic way of thinking is generally a watered-down offshoot of the more conservative and rigid psychoanalytic school of thought. Psychoanalysis emphasizes that all adult problems’ roots can be traced back to one’s childhood. Few therapists can afford to practice strict psychoanalysis anymore and it is typically found nowadays only in the hands of psychiatrists, who have spent extraordinary amounts of personal time being analyzed themselves and attending a psychoanalytic institute. When people think of a “shrink,” they probably imagine this type of therapy.
COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL (and behavioral) THEORY AND THERAPY
It is not really fair to lump these two together like this. Cognitive-behavioral theory emphasizes the cognitions or thoughts a person has as an explanation as to how people develop and how they sometimes get a mental disorder. Many types of theories in psychology could fit under this broad category, and it would be difficult to do them all justice. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, in a nutshell, seeks to change a person’s irrational or faulty thinking and behaviors by educating the person and reinforcing positive experiences that will lead to fundamental changes in the way that person copes.
HUMANISTIC (and existential) THEORY AND THERAPY
This theory views human beings as basically good and positively, with the freedom to choose all of their actions and behaviors in their lives. What motivates behavior is “self-actualization,” of the desire to always seek out to become something more of oneself in the future. Because an individual can be conscious of his or her own existence under this theory, that person is also fully responsible for the choices they make to further (or diminish) that existence. Responsibility is a key ingredient of this theory, for all humans are responsible for the choices they make in their lives, with regards to their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors.
ECLECTICISM THEORY AND THERAPY
There are many forms of eclecticism but it is not really important to know or understand the differences between them all. It is a pragmatic approach to therapy, meshing all approaches together to fit the individualistic human being that sits before them for the first time with their particular problem.
Eclectics use techniques from all schools of therapy. Therapists may have a favorite theory or therapeutic technique that they tend to use more often or fall back on, but they are willing and often use all that are available to them. After all, the key here is to help the patient as quickly and as effectively as possible. Not to pigeonhole them into some set way of looking at all people, whether it works for them or not.
Types of Psychological Testing
The Clinical Interview
The clinical interview is a core component of any psychological testing. Some people know the clinical interview as an “intake interview”, “admission interview” or “diagnostic interview” (although technically these are often very different things).
Clinical interviews typically last from 1 to 2 hours in length, and occur most often in a clinician’s office. Many types of mental health professionals can conduct a clinical interview — psychologists, psychiatrists, clinical social workers, psychiatric nurses, amongst others. The clinical interview is an opportunity for the professional to gather important background and family data about the person. Think of it as an information-gathering session for the professional’s benefit (but ultimately for your benefit).
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning (IQ)
Your IQ — intellectual quotient — is a theoretical construct of a measure of general intelligence. It’s important to note that IQ tests do not measure actual intelligence — they measure what we believe might be important components of intelligence. There are two primary measures used to test a person’s intellectual functions — intelligence tests and neuropsychological assessment. Intelligence tests are the more common type administered and include the Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler scales.
Neuropsychological assessment — which can take up to 2 days to administer — is a far more extensive form of assessment. It is focused not just on testing for intelligence, but also on determining all of the cognitive strengths and deficits of the person.
Neuropsychological assessment is most usually done with people who have suffered some sort of brain damage, dysfunction or some kind of organic brain problem, just as having a brain hemorrhage.
Personality assessment is designed to help a professional better understand an individual’s personality. Personality is a complex combination of factors that has been developed over a person’s entire childhood and young adulthood. There are genetic, environmental and social components to personality — our personalities are not shaped by one single influence.
Therefore, tests that measure personality take in to account this complexity and rich texture. There are two primary types of personality tests — objective, by far the most commonly used today, and projective. Objective tests include things like the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), the 16PF, and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Projective tests include the Rorschach Inkblot Test, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), and the Draw-a-Person test.
Behavioral assessment is the process of observing or measuring a person’s actual behavior to try and better understand the behavior and the thoughts behind it, and determine possible reinforcing components or triggers for the behavior. Through the process of behavioral assessment, a person — and/or a professional — can track behaviors and help change them.
After a clinical interview, the core of behavioral assessment is naturalistic observation — that is, observing the person in a natural setting and taking notes (much like an anthropologist). This can be done at home (think “Super Nanny” when Nanny spends the first day simply observing the current family patterns of behavior), at school, at work, or in a hospital or inpatient setting. Target negative and positive behaviors are observed, as well as their respective reinforcements. Then the therapist has a good idea of what needs to change in order to obtain new, healthier behaviors.
I asked my father why he practically lived in restaurants drinking coffee and flirting with the waitresses, I’ll never forget his response, “so I can get a kind word.” Your kind word may be all a person hears in a day, week, or month. I never really knew the importance of saying a kind word until I became a parent. How a person day is going may be a direct reflection on how their morning is established.
My father was Bi-polar untreated, and it was rough some days. Very few people knew what it was to have Bi-polar mental issues 30 years ago and it certainly wasn’t table talk.
Untreated Bi-polar consumers experience wide mood changes at any given moment that they are unable to control and often do not recognize that their emotions are swing to-and-fro like a pendulum.
They may even think that they are going crazy at times. The moods can be irrational thinking and speeded up thought processes in the mania compiled with feelings of resilience and egocentric thinking. I could clean out our checking account in short-order when I was manic. I had a visual limit posted on my computer telling me not to spend money over a certain amount; as a reinforcer.
The downside is depressive moods, where they are unable to get out of bed, think dark thoughts, tremendous sadness, general feeling of being unwell. They may not be able to cry or can’t stop crying. You may have witnessed people crying in their beer at social gatherings- can we say DEPRESSION!
People who are in the fall-out area… the caretakers and family members need treatment too in the form of healthy supporting relationships. The untreated person may have a host of other issues stemming from the contact with the bipolar individual. Bi-polar runs in families, it can skip a generation or go across generational ties like a great aunt/uncle and cousin may have it as well as parent/child.
I make a practice of hugging my grandsons and telling them I love them, and that they are good boys, and wishing them to have a good day (at school). Then I ask them about their day when I see them later. These simple acts of kindness can motivate them to have a good day.
So now I am wishing for you too,
“Have a Nice Day!”
Tuesday, February 06, 2018 was a shocking day for us. Robert has to quit his high-paying job and take an unpaid medical retirement. His Ankylosing Psoriasis Arthritis was out of remission and brought his health down. His symptoms included Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Our financial picture was okay, or so we thought. Until reality sunk in. We cashed our savings and 401K in and final bonus. We paid to get rid of the truck and payment of $751.00 monthly. We bought a used truck for $7100.00 and had to make $2500.00 in repairs in September.
We were ushered into the world of Social Security Disability Insurance claim and hiring a good lawyer. May met with approval for September 2018.
My prescriptions were $2,000.00 monthly, and Roberts was $900.00 monthly, no problem if you have insurance—now we didn’t. Discover Catholic charity organization that would help one time per year. They helped with mine but couldn’t with Roberts they used the amount that would have been allotted to him, and we paid the difference on the prescription bill.
We paid off credit card debt. Stopped the housekeeper, lawn care, dog walker, and pooper-scooper services. We made changes for the Internet/TV and cellular phone services $800.00 monthly became $300.00 monthly. Then my daughter helped shave $200.00 off the bill. We cut back on eating out and spa days. Mindless shopping was a thing of the past.
Little did we know that in seven weeks he would suffer a heart attack and have heart surgery performed hours later on Tuesday, March 20th. The hospital required an $18,368.00 deposit ($61,000.00+ Surgery). Public health services were non-existent; I filled out two applications (1st was lost) and kept on them for three months only to be denied services because my husband made too much money in 2017. We have a huge garage sale fundraiser.
We began to search for medical insurance; what a sticker shock! $500.00+ monthly for basic and I do mean basic insurance through care.gov program; no prescription coverage, two annual checkups, and 70/30 copay with $1500.00 deductible and only pay the hospital $250.00 for any hospital stay greater than 20hours. In 2019, despite it using part of the name- our insurance was not Obamacare approved so guess who had to pay a $1100.00 tax penalty?
April rolls around an air conditioner/heat pump quit working. We coast into May, hot temperatures force us to spend $2400.00 on portable air conditioner/heat units. Our electric bill doubles for three months until we take a personal loan out to replace the ac/unit in June.
July 1st rolls around, we pay our mortgage. No funds have been coming in from employment or any other source. We officially run out of money. SSDI does not start until September 15th.
Our pride is sunk. My daughters help with food and life insurances. We’re not out of the woods, yet.
December comes, we ask, and our church helps us out with utilities, and a community link helps with food once a month. Christmas giving is non-existent without the use of an online store credit card. We go into debt willfully; we don’t want the grandchildren to think we forgot about them. We spent $40k of savings & SSDI to survive the 1st ¾ of the year.
January 2019. Our real estate taxes increase, the homeowner’s insurance raises $400.00, and we have an escrow shortage that jacks our payments up.
February 6th, 2019 one year to the day, we list our house for sale.
March 11,2019. There are pitfalls with our credit score that have to be addressed so we can buy another cheaper place to live. We have learned to live frugally. I have been attending a Dave Ramsey Financial University workshop. We were cut to the bone. What turned out to be fair weather friends abandoned us, and true friends came forward to offer encouragement.
Our faith in GOD had grown. Our commitment to the church has grown in creating and developing a ministry and helping out other ministries with our time and talents. Our family dynamics have remained stable; we have each other’s heart. We are over the foothills and are climbing the mountains’. God has been our strength, our refuge, an ambassador of our belief in him through Jesus Christ our Lord. Evil will always be among us, but so is good.
EDUC-EDRD 6305: Research Design
The University of Texas of the Permian Basin
The research case study proposal topic is the Impact of Environment on Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The hypothesis is: Are students with Autism Spectrum Disorder positively or negatively affected by the classroom environment? Special education classroom environments are studied for objectivity in the placement of furniture, sensory input such as visual cues, smells, salivatory, tactile response, hearing (auditory) stimulus, and perceptions of comfort and well-being.
Two qualitative classroom samples will be collected as evidence of existing research in practice and compared with other datum collected from quantitative and qualitative research studies articles. The focus will be on furniture placement, light, sound, and food stimuli. Autism Spectrum Disorder will be defined by the American Psychiatric Association APA. Legislation about Public Law 106-310 (2000), and Public Law 109-416 (2006) will be defined. Other research studies are included in this article. Finally, the Ziggurat Model is presented for study.
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Classroom Environment, Sensory sensitivities, emotional response, classroom performances, behavior modification, Ziggurat Model, Public Law 106-310 Public Law 109-416
The purpose of this research study is to determine what are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment. The quantity of available research are limited ( ≤40) related topics. We will discover the manners of which, students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are affected by the classroom environment. The objective of this study is to identify the effects of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the classroom environment. To be discussed are the questions; What environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in the classroom?
What are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment? How can educators prepare their classroom environments for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)? We will look at how available research on the physical environment of dependent variables such as light, sound, furniture placement and the use of food reinforcers will affect student behavior. The independent variables are the presence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder student, length of school day, subjects taught in the school day. And the dependent variables are lighting, noise, temperature, smell, tactile, taste, change in routine (perceptions), and legislation for research into Autism Spectrum Disorder.
The hypothesis is students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are affected by the classroom environment. The essential question is what environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in the classroom? The Foundation of this paper is: My grandson is an Autism student in K-5 for Eagle Mountain ISD, and my daughter teaches Autistic students K-5 for Fort Worth ISD, I am interested in why their classrooms are successful.
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
According to McAllister and Maguire (2012), and Kinnealey and Pfeiffer, (2012) “Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a term that covers many subgroups within the spectrum of autism. Autism can be termed as a lifelong complex neurodevelopmental disorder. It is characterized by a triad of qualitative impairments in social communication, social interaction, and social imagination.”
These social cues are essential to the normal function of human beings. In people with autism, their environment processes their environment in over-stimulation of sight, sound, noises, taste, and touch. “For people with ASD to function properly, their environment must be adapted whenever possible according to the experts. The experts are defined as teachers, parents, behavioralist, and environmental psychologist” according to McAlister and Maguire (2012), and Martin, (2016).
How common is ASD?
“In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported a 1600% increase in the number of individuals between the ages of 6 and 22 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from 1993 to 2013.” (Martin, 2014, p.280) Although, Autism Spectrum Disorder occurrences are on the rise in early childhood, today (2014) at a ratio of 1:68 children are born with ASD (Martin, 2014, p280) the physical classroom has been neglected by researchers to determine the optimal sensory settings for ASU students.
according to the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, the population of ASD is 9.0 per 1,000
population or 1 in every 110 children.”
(Kinnealey and Pfeiffer, (2012) that number is up from the Center for Disease
Control (CDC) in 2013, in children with ASD ages 6 years and 22 years old are estimated at 1: 88, with the incidence of boys to girls to be 5:1.
Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a disorder identified by a lifelong complex neurodevelopmental disorder. It is characterized by a triad of qualitative impairments in social communication, social interaction, and social imagination.”
Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an impairment in the ability to plan and carry out sensory and motor tasks.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a US law designed to provide privacy standards to protect patients’ medical records and other health information provided to health plans, doctors, hospitals and other health care providers.
The Ziggurat Model was co-authored by Ruth Aspy, Ph.D., and Barry Grossman, Ph.D., licensed psychologists specializing in
assessment and intervention for individuals with autism spectrum
disorders. The model was created to address concerns and common pitfalls
of typical approaches to developing intervention plans, such as incomplete
pictures of the person’s challenges and failure to target specific behaviors.
American Journal of Occupational Therapy -AJOT
American Psychiatric Association- APA
Autism Spectrum Conditions -ASC
Autism Spectrum Disorder- ASD
Centers for Disease Control -CDC
Collaborative Virtual Learning System (CVLE)
High Visual Display – HVD
1nteragency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC)
Independent School District- ISD
National Institute of Health -NIH
Public Law- PL
Sensory Processing Measure (SPM).
What legislation regarding ASD is available
environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum
Disorders to be successful in the classroom? And What are the effects on Students
with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment? The independent
variables are the presence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder student,
length of school day, subjects taught in the school day. And the dependent
variables are lighting, noise, temperature, smell, tactile,
change in routine (perceptions of comfort and well-being). The
purpose of this research is to determine the effects on Students with Autism
Spectrum Disorder by the classroom. Public Law 106-310 (2000) and Public Law 109-416 (2006) are established to
formulate government research and fund five agencies in the discovery and treatment
of ASD. In a future study, temperature, smell, and tactile dissemination could
be addressed in addition to the perceptions of a child’s well-being and
Chapter 2- Review of Literature
Articles spanning 2001 to 2019 were utilized, with an emphasis on the more recent eight years whereas possible. The following Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Classroom Environment, Sensory sensitivities, emotional response, classroom performances, behavior modification, Ziggurat Model, are used to define the research parameters. Topics are included in the Body of Reviews, herein.
Body of Reviews
Hanley, Mary, Khairat, Mariam, et al. (2017) Classroom Displays- Attraction or Distraction? Evidence of Impact on Attention and Learning from Children With and Without Autism. Developmental Psychology, 4 May 2017, Vol. 53, No. 7, p1265-1275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000271
The authors used video recordings to tape children’s eye movements in a controlled setting without any high visual displays (HVD) in their background and another group with HVD. In both children with and without autism, had difficulty recalling two stories and two mini-lessons on a worksheet after exposure to HVD backgrounds as part of the presentation. The students with autism did not do as well as students without autism when the HVD was present. It is noted that 8 of the 34 students were tested at their homes in comparable environments of visual displays. This quantitative paper covers time spent looking at teachers face and looking at HVD’s. The math in this paper was hard to understand. I will use it in my research papers to give credence to MacAllister and Maguire’s papers.
Kinnealey, Moya, Pfeiffer, Beth, et al. (2012) Effect of classroom modification on attention and engagement of students with autism or dyspraxia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT), 66, 511-519, http://ddx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2012.004010
The authors offer a solution to poor behaviors in a classroom with an autistic and dyspraxia student, by incorporating halogen lighting and sound-absorbing walls and ceiling material. “Results included increased frequency and stability of attending and engagement and improved classroom performance, and mood.” I will use this summary as a primer to my hypothesis about Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are positively or negatively affected by the classroom environment.
Ma Fernandez-Andres, Inmaculada, Gemma Pastor-Venezuela, & et al. A comparative study of sensory processing in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in the home and classroom environments. (2015) Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38. P202-212. , http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.034
The authors did a study on two groups of children ages five to eight years for Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). They had parents (more mom than dad) and teachers (more women than men) complete questionnaires based on home environment or school classroom environment. They used a Likert-type scale on the questionnaires demographic datum, age, years with ASD contact with student/child, and parental: education, occupation, income, and marital status were all considered as variables in the research. The teachers reported more dysfunction in social participation, touch, and praxis (the ability to plan and organize movement). Other areas to be considered were sensory processing, social participation, and praxis of the ASD group. I will use this data DSM-5 definition of ASD in my research.
Martin, Caren S. (2016) Exploring the impact of the design of the physical classroom environment on young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, Vol 16 No.4 280-298 doi: 10.1111/1471-3802.12092
This is a quantitative report regarding students in preschool to 6th grade with ASD; the ages whereas experts agree are critical in forming a foundation for the students’ well-being and life-long learning practices. There was limited research available at the time the article was written; there were limited resources available for comparisons and most of the data were anecdotal in terms of creating an optimal learning environment. Such anecdotal information came from designers, teachers, and school administrators. This article was concerned with the interactive relationships between humans and the environment as explored by environmental. Psychologist and behavioral psychologist. This article gets precise details with classroom modifications in the comparison of 19 articles summarized. I can use this article as a checklist of expectations in the development of a classroom environment.
McAllister, Keith, Maguire, Barry, (2012) A design model: the Autism Spectrum Disorder Classroom Design Kit British Journal of Special Education ©NASEN
The authors present a study of a classroom environment that is specially equipped to handle students who have “sensory sensitivity to visual, auditory, tactile, proprioceptive, gustatory, and olfactory stimuli.” The difficulties that architects have with interacting with the teachers and pupils are detailed as architects use pictures to demonstrate the needs of a client, while teachers use words to describe the needs of the child. This study was conducted in nine “key one” classrooms, (ages five to eight), and one “key three” classrooms, (ages 11-16). The purpose was early intervention strategies that would be conducive to the children feeling comfortable, and at ease in their learning environment, The key three was a control unit of expected behaviors, while the key one was working hypothesis to get to stage three developmentally. I think this paper has merit, and I plan to use the information in my own research paper in comparing the three elemental teaching zones for the classroom.
McAllister, Keith, Maguire, Barry, (2012) Design considerations for the autism spectrum disorder-friendly Key Stage 1 classroom. 18 Sep 2012, Https”doi-org.ezproxy.utpb.edu/10.1111/j.1467-9604.2012.01525.x
The authors engaged classrooms in three stages of development over a two year period that broke 16 components into “four category bands; control and safety, classroom character, classroom usage, and classroom physical factors.” The purpose of the design was so that teachers could define their ideal ASD-friendly classroom and discover what worked and didn’t work. The 16 areas of concentration are spelled out. I will use this article to compare the results of my study to determine if there is a correlation of findings between this study and my study herein, Becker-Smith.
Negilioni, Kappa, and Ramani, Krishna Kumar, (2019) Environmental factors in school classrooms: How they influence visual task demand on children. © Negiloni et al. PLoS One 14(1):e0210299 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210299
The authors did a quantitive study on the effects of light in a classroom on fixtures such as chalkboard, green and black with white chalk and the students’ desks. They discovered that 62% of the 29 classrooms they evaluated had low lighting [<150lux] so that visual acuity was problematic as determined by light in lumens. The optimal lumens is >150-300lux. The study found that the classroom placement of desks in relationship to chalkboards needed adjustments and the lighting needed to be increased. Once the lighting was increased, assessments with the variables such as letter legibility, stroke-width, and chalkboard contrast we took under advisement. Also, regular audits of the classroom and recommended eyes screening of the students are necessary. I will use this article as reference material to the placement of a zone of learning between chalkboards and student desks and teacher placement.
Yufang, Xhen, and Jun Yee (2010) Exploring the social competence of students with autism spectrum conditions in a collaborative virtual learning environment- The pilot study. Computers and Education, Science Digest, 54, p 1068-1077. Doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.10.011.
The authors define autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and collaborative virtual learning system (CVLE). The research is done with three students (one girl and two boys) with social competence disorders with ASC, normal average IQ’s, and normal cognitive abilities. There were two scenes; classroom and outside, for the student to engage in using a self-expressive avatar in a 3D social situation. The students were able to use verbal and non-verbal cues in selecting responses to stimuli. They were evaluated on a post-game simulation by describing; what happened, what do you see, and why do you feel, questions about the pictures or scenes in the game. The findings were positive that students with ASC could benefit from using virtual reality games to support their social confidences and have improvement in reciprocal social behaviors. I will use this research to validate the sensory tactile, visual, and oratory aspects of ASD in my research paper.
The reason we
need to research this topic is that new to ASD teachers need to know the
environmental factor that will occur in their classroom, solutions, and support
of peer-to-peer teachers. The latest research study (Becker-Smith) was
conducted by me in February 2019, in The form of a questionnaire, a poll, and
an opportunity to share personal insights of teaching ADS Students. The study
was completed by Megan Becker, B.S. of Saginaw/Eagle Mountain ISD and Ms. Kassidey
Challis, M.Ed. of Fort Worth ISD. My hypothesis statement; Are students with
Autism Spectrum Disorder positively or negatively affected by the classroom
environment? The questionnaires gave me similar results on the
qualitative case study. The purpose
of this research study is to determine what are the effects on Students with
Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment.
Chapter III- Methodology
Research Designs A Qualitative Study
How can educators prepare their classroom environments for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?
We will look at how the physical environment of dependent variables such as furniture placement, light, and sound will affect student behavior. In the research (Becker-Smith), Megan Becker (2019) teacher stated, children, “tend to stim (stim- is a repeated behavior consciously or unconsciously acted out), on lights or reflections created by overhead fluorescent lighting. There is one child who avoids walking on the reflections in the hallway.” She also conferred that natural lighting at different levels in the classroom was best. She has noted that fluorescent light can cause headaches to occur. Kassidey Smith (2019), the teacher stated that different types of lights like florescent will aggravate kids more than other types like ambient (lamps) lighting around a classroom. Smith has found that LED lighting has the least flicker and is not as harsh on the eyes. The dependent variables are lighting, noise, temperature, smell, tactile, change in routine/perceptions. The effects of light and sound barriers are discussed. In the study by Kinnealey and Pfeiffer, et al. (2012), six weeks study of videotaping an empty classroom, for sound in decibels (dB). In sixteen 10 minute intervals of videotaping at various times day and night for the control group and then adding sound barrier treatments for two weeks and halogen lights for the final two weeks “improved the overall sensory comfort, attention, engagement, emotional mood response and improved classroom performance of the four participants/pupils evaluated.”
In another research group, they used four male participants, three of whom were on the spectrum (ASD), and one had Dyspraxia. “Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an impairment in the ability to plan and carry out sensory and motor tasks. Generally, individuals with the disorder appear “out of sync” with their environment. Symptoms vary and may include poor balance and coordination, clumsiness, vision problems, perceptions of comfort and well-being difficulties, emotional and behavioral problems, difficulty with reading, writing, and speaking, poor social skills, poor posture, and poor short-term memory.” (NIMH, 2019).
The four participants were in the age range of 13 years to 20 years, and the “participants demonstrated classroom-ready behaviors as defined by the school and be free of special health concerns, cognitive impairment, or a psychiatric condition.” (Kinnealey and Pfeiffer (2012)). The participants kept journals and answer pre-post surveys and guided questions by the Occupational Therapist. The findings were conclusive; however, there is much more experimental research that needs to be done in the area of a broader-based sampling of participants, varying sequences of interventions, using a dB meter that has lower than 50dB capabilities.
The Becker-Smith research parameters such as; gender of teacher/aides, student/teacher ratio, the age of teacher, the age range of students, and education of teacher were noted. In my research, Becker said that the placement of furniture can help control student behaviors by giving them a well-defined workspace. Younger children do well in defined expected areas like their desk and chair. Smith concurred with Becker that some students do better with a specified single area, while others do better in groups.(Becker-Smith, 2019) This is especially true if they are adapted to using visual cues. Visual cues can include pictures with written labels on a sentence strip. Simple things like Velcro on a desk can help define the parameter or focus for a child of ASD.
In Becker’s classroom, (Becker-Smith, 2019), she has repeatedly observed the phenomena that removing as few as one child from the class due to absence can cause a shift in behaviors, the students usually are quieter. However, when adults focus their attention on other adults, the children start acting out; much like in regular classrooms. Becker and Smith both state that when noise is the over-stimuli, it is beneficial to offer headphones to the affected child or switch the background noise type to quiet or soothing music. They both use headphones on computer stations. Becker said because background noise competes with internal noise, children on ASD need extra time to process responses to questions. Smith also stated that weather and full-moon stages positively affect children’s behaviors negatively.
Yufang, X. (2010). The research is done with three students (one girl and two boys) with social competence disorders with ASC, normal average IQ’s, and normal cognitive abilities. There were two scenes; classroom and outside, for the student to engage in using a self-expressive avatar in a 3D social situation. The students were able to use verbal and non-verbal cues in selecting responses to stimuli. They were evaluated on a post-game simulation by describing; what happened, what do you see, and why do you feel, questions about the pictures or scenes in the game. The findings were positive that students with ASC could benefit from using virtual reality games to support their social confidences and have improvement in reciprocal social behaviors. I have used this research to validate the sensory tactile, visual, and oratory aspects of ASD in the Becker-Smith research paper.
Ma Fernandez-Andres, I. et al. did a study on two groups of children ages five to eight years for Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). They had parents (more mom than dad) and teachers (more women than men) complete questionnaires based on home environment or school classroom environment. They used a Likert-type scale on the questionnaires, demographic datum, age, years with ASD contact with student/child, and parental: education, occupation, income, and marital status were all considered as variables in the research. The teachers reported more dysfunction in social participation, touch, and praxis (the ability to plan and organize movement). Other areas to be considered were sensory processing and praxis of the ASD group.
The research parameters for the qualitative case study of Becker-Smith’s group I and II are the gender of teacher/aides, student/teacher ratio, the age of teacher, the age range of students, and education of teacher was noted. Foundation: My grandson is an Autism student in K-5 for Eagle Mountain ISD, and my daughter teaches Autistic students K-5 for Fort Worth ISD, I am interested in why their classrooms are successful. The intent for my research paper is so that new or non-ASD teachers will have a basic understanding of what autism is and how the environment plays a factor in their success or failure as a student. Hypothesis: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are positively or negatively affected by the classroom environment. Topic: Impact of Environment on Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Essential Question: What environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in the classroom? Independent variables: Presence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder student, length of school day, subjects taught in the school day. Dependent Variables: lighting, noise, temperature, smell, change in routine (perceptions). Research question: What are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment? Research purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment. Research objective: The objective of this study is to identify the effects of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the classroom environment.
In my qualitative case study of group I and II, the teacher was female, white, and age 36, taught in a structured self-contained classroom, taught a minimum of 5 years but not more than 10 years, taught students with ASD factors and taught in public independent school districts. The variable that was different was the ratio of student: teacher, Group I, 7:2 and Group II, 11:3 respectively. I propose that additional research is needed with a broader sample of the ethnic background of teachers, ages of teachers, years of teaching experience, type of classroom, private vs. public Independent School Districts and comparable student to teacher ratios in order to see the similarities and differences that sensory output and input has on a students behavior.
One final note is that food (taste/salvatory) was considered as a variable. Becker said food can be a positive reinforcer of behavior if the student doesn’t become over saturated. And Smith said that it is not the food item itself that reinforces behavior, it is the “how” (methods) it is used, that makes the difference.
Research Design: Qualitative Research- The Ziggurat Model
Articles to answer the research questions such as: “How to support the well- being and education of children with ASD in the classroom environment” [from an educator’s perspective.] (Martin, S. 2014 p.281). Martin states, ‘Sensory Differences’ area and include issues such as responses to sounds, light (including reflections, shadows) or color, temperature, smells (sometimes undetected by others), need for movement (including pacing, rocking), avoidance of movement and sensory exploration of objects, as depicted in the hierarchical approach in the Ziggurat Model. (Aspy and Grossman, 2013) How it Works. See figure 1. The Ziggurat Model is based on the premise that we must first understand why individuals are engaging in specific behaviors and identify what is reinforcing for them before attempting to teach them new skills. The Ziggurat approach centers on three assessment tools and a five-level hierarchal system, and it utilizes students’ strengths to address underlying deficits. Each level represents an area that must be addressed for an intervention plan to be comprehensive.
Figure 1: The
Effects of the Physical Classroom Environment
Architects are employed by schools to decorate the schools’ environment with wall placements and lighting designs, acoustics, and even furniture choices. ASU student physical classrooms are not typically specialized by architects, their classrooms are designed for non-handicapped regular students. Usually, it is heuristic, anecdotal information from other teachers, parents, and behaviorist that inform the school of classroom accommodations that are needed, and as such are unreliable local knowledge. (Martin, 2014, p281).
According to Doctoroff, (2001, pp105-109,), “Thoughtful arrangements of space and High noise levels have the potential to impede materials can invite children’s participation in play and communication during social play. In general, noise level contributes to their efforts to organize and utilize materials should be moderate so that children and teachers can also, engage peers, and persist in play. In many instances, be responsive to each other’s social cues. (Ramsey, environmental enrichment or modifications result in 1991).”
Adaptions to the physical environment can limit or enhance a child’s ability to play and learn at the same time. Natural or ambient lighting can be an asset or a determent depending on the child’s needs for sensory input. Noise levels pose a challenge for some children with handicaps like AUS students. Noise-canceling devices or headphones can be given or take away input. Accessibility to all play areas using ramps as needed to aid students with physical limitations should be provided. Doctoroff (2001), sites examples of modifications to play areas and inclusion of mixed play areas to keep student interest elevated. “A classroom play environment that is careful development. Adaptive play for special needs children: planned to meet the developmental, sensorimotor, behavioral, social, and emotional needs of each child has the potential to enrich and extend the play possibilities.)”
The HIPPA Law required I use (in)formal questionnaire and poll format vs. in-person classroom interviews. Due to the convenience of the Educators involved in the Becker-Smith research, the datum were collected by questionnaires and polls (Becker-Smith, 2019) and accessed to assess the value of interpretations of open-ended questions and an opinion poll.
Martin and Doctoroff have essential revelations about the physical classroom. Martin is in the design elements of the physical classroom and Doctoroff is in the accessories within the physical classroom. Future empirical research evidence is needed to serve the classroom environment for students with ASD.
The Ziggurat Model was co-authored by Ruth Aspy, Ph.D., and Barry Grossman, Ph.D., licensed psychologists specializing in
assessment and intervention for individuals with autism spectrum
disorders. The model was created to address concerns and common pitfalls
of typical approaches to developing intervention plans, such as incomplete
pictures of the person’s challenges and failure to target specific behaviors.
Chapter IV- Ethics & Human Relationships/Timeline
There are not any threats to the educators reporting the information, they are protected by the Hippa “gag” order. I am physically handing the research documents to the educators and retrieving the finished product. I gained formal consent to approach educators at their place of employment. It took three weeks to get the information questionnaire and poll back from the educators. Two weeks to synthesize and compare data from the poll and questionnaire and one week to write proposal.
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[KAC1]Unable to invent text on 2nd + lines.
Stress is normal. We are born feeling stress if only in the birth process and procedures entering our new world. Abnormal stress is normal, too! It’s how we handle abnormal stress that affects our way of life.
Some people eat junk food- i.e. carbohydrates or sugary sweets to cope. The momentary high off the sugar is enough to keep them coming back for more.
Some people go for over-the-counter drugs, alcohol, or smoking and vaping as it is referred to now. They know the risks associated with the behavior but ignore them.
Some people go for the emotional outlet screaming at someone, having sex, or going through a small mental meltdown. They berate themselves afterward.
Some people go for physical exertion, running, walking, lift weights, contact sports. Done to the excess.
A healthy outlet can be physical workouts, meditation, yoga. Listening to music, dancing, writing or journaling, eating a quick energy/protein snack. Talking to a friend or sympathetic person or paying attention to a pet. Doing arts and crafts can help defuse and get you past a tense situation. Use fidget toys or squeeze stress balls for a light physical drain of excess energy.
The key to preventing stress overload is the unerstanding of your triggers. Family get-togethers can become drama fests, Negotiating with a teenager, dealing with cranky people, not getting enough rest and sleep. Once you have identified your triggers. Make a plan.
Planning ahead of time scenarios that can happen. If its family drama for you then, rehearse some calming “I” statements (I feel Adjective about Action
An example: I feel sad that my parents divorced 45 years ago, but I’m dealing with it. Rather than my parents ruined my life when they divorced forty-five years ago. Or I feel crazy mad when you make that comment. Ones about ownership the other is placing blame and shame.
Self-efficacy or self-esteem is important when dealing with abnormal stress. It should be noted that abnormal stress can be both positive or negative or both. an example: I got a raise and promotion at work, but I have to put in overtime.
Felling happiness or sadness are both neutral emotions that can provoke internal conflicts. Choosing an emotional response to stimuli is a subconscious choice that may affect our conscious self.
Make your self a box of de-stressing materials that you can physically go to and use to help you decompress after a stressful event occurs.
Article found at: https://www.wired.com/2014/05/the-creature-feature-
BABIRUSAS ARE NO ordinary pigs.
Found in the swamps and rainforests of Indonesian islands, babirusas have barrel-shaped bodies balanced on delicate, deer-like legs. The most well-known species of babirusa is distinguished by its naked body and massive, curving tusks. Read on to meet this strange and charismatic oinker.
1. Babirusas are native to the Indonesian islands of Sulawesi, Togian, Sula, and Buru. Humans first colonized Sulawesi approximately 30,000 years ago and soon began hunting and eating babirusas. It’s thought that humans introduced babirusas to Sulu and Buru — although given the babirusa’s swimming prowess, it’s also conceivable that the animals made the journey of their own accord.
2. There are four species of babirusa. The most well-known (Babyrousa celebensis — the naked-looking babirusa with the monster tusks) is found on Sulawesi. The other species of babirusa have longer coats that vary in color from white to creamy gold to black and brown.
3. Babirusas are very unique pigs
. Babirusas are wild members of the pig family (Suidae), but they differ from other pigs in several ways. Their snouts are not as specialized as those of other pigs. Babirusas also have complex, two-chambered stomachs, which are more reminiscent of the digestive systems of sheep and other ruminants than those of their fellow pigs. Scientists think babirusas branched off from the rest of the pig family early in its evolution.
4. Babirusa means “pig-deer” in the Malay language. It’s thought that the Sulawesi people gave the babirusa this moniker because their large canines remind them of antlers, but the name could also reflect how the babirusa combines slender, deer-like legs and a multi-chambered stomach with its other, more pig-like traits.
5. Babirusas eat almost everything. They’re omnivorous, with a diet that includes leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, mushrooms, bark, insects, fish, and small mammals (even smaller babirusas!). Babirusas use their hooves to dig for roots and insect larvae in the ground and are also able to support themselves on their two back feet to stand up and feed on higher leaves.
6. Baby babirusas are fast developers. While most piglets are striped at birth (camouflage to evade predators) and dependent on their mothers for a long time, babirusa young lack stripes and develop quickly. They typically wander from the nest and begin sampling solid foods by ten days old. Babirusa litter sizes are also small for pigs, usually only one to three piglets per litter. This small litter size and lack of camouflage is often attributed to the babirusa’s predator-free environment.
7. They do well in captivity. In the wild, babirusas might live ten years. But several babirusas in zoos have made it past 20 years old. In his blog Tetrapod Zoology, Darren Naish says captive babirusas “exhibit excitement and enthusiasm on greeting familiar people, engaging in tail wagging, head shaking and jumping and running about.”
8. They engage in an unusual ploughing behavior. Given soft sand, captive babirusas (primarily males) will kneel down and push their heads forward through the sand, creating a deep furrow. As they plough, they snort, growl, and produce foamy saliva. Males plough most vigorously when they are in the enclosure of another male. As the babirusas appear to mouth the sand as they plough through, it’s believed the behavior has some sort of scent-marking function, although the exact purpose remains unknown.
9. They have awesome tusks
. The north Sulawesi babirusa is most famous for its amazing tusks, which only the males possess. Like many pigs, the male babirusa’s canine teeth continue to grow throughout its life. The lower canine teeth are long and overlap the edge of the babirusa’s snout as they grow, but it’s the upper canines that are truly magnificent. These teeth start out growing downward, but then rotate and begin to grow up and into the top of the snout, penetrating the skin and curving back towards the animal’s forehead. The tusks can reach lengths of 17 inches and can actually grow back into the skull.
10. But what are those tusks for? It’s actually a mystery. One hypothesis is that the males use their tusks during fights over females. It seems reasonable, until you look at how babirusas really fight. They don’t hook tusks, but stand up on their hind legs and “box” each other with their front hooves. Additionally, babirusa tusks aren’t built to withstand much pressure; they are brittle and easily broken, not at all suited for combat. It seems likely that the tusks serve a display purpose, perhaps signaling genetic fitness to females, but this is an idea that hasn’t been tested. For now, the purpose of those marvelous tusks is still a mystery.
References and Other Resources
Leus, K., Bland, K., Dhondt, A., and Macdonald, A. (1996). Ploughing behaviour of Babyrousa babyrussa (Suidae, Mammalia) suggests a scent-marking function. Journal of Zoology, 238(2), 209-219. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1996.tb05390.x