Impact of Environment on Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

EDUC-EDRD 6305: Research Design

Kathy Challis

The University of Texas of the Permian Basin

Abstract

The research case study proposal topic is the Impact of Environment on Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The hypothesis is: Are students with Autism Spectrum Disorder positively or negatively affected by the classroom environment?  Special education classroom environments are studied for objectivity in the placement of furniture, sensory input such as visual cues, smells, salivatory, tactile response, hearing (auditory) stimulus, and perceptions of comfort and well-being.

Two qualitative classroom samples will be collected as evidence of existing research in practice and compared with other datum collected from quantitative and qualitative research studies articles. The focus will be on furniture placement, light, sound, and food stimuli. Autism Spectrum Disorder will be defined by the American Psychiatric Association APA. Legislation about Public Law 106-310 (2000), and Public Law 109-416 (2006) will be defined. Other research studies are included in this article. Finally, the Ziggurat Model is presented for study.

Keywords:  Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Classroom Environment, Sensory sensitivities, emotional response, classroom performances, behavior modification, Ziggurat Model,  Public Law 106-310 Public Law 109-416

Chapter One

Introduction

The purpose of this research study is to determine what are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment. The quantity of available research are limited ( ≤40) related topics. We will discover the manners of which, students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are affected by the classroom environment. The objective of this study is to identify the effects of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the classroom environment. To be discussed are the questions; What environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in the classroom?

What are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment? How can educators prepare their classroom environments for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)? We will look at how available research on the physical environment of dependent variables such as light, sound, furniture placement and the use of food reinforcers will affect student behavior. The independent variables are the presence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder student, length of school day, subjects taught in the school day. And the dependent variables are lighting, noise, temperature, smell, tactile, taste, change in routine (perceptions), and legislation for research into Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

The hypothesis is students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are affected by the classroom environment. The essential question is what environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in the classroom? The Foundation of this paper is: My grandson is an Autism student in K-5 for Eagle Mountain ISD, and my daughter teaches Autistic students K-5 for Fort Worth ISD, I am interested in why their classrooms are successful.  

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

 According to McAllister and Maguire (2012), and Kinnealey and Pfeiffer, (2012) “Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a term that covers many subgroups within the spectrum of autism. Autism can be termed as a lifelong complex neurodevelopmental disorder. It is characterized by a triad of qualitative impairments in social communication, social interaction, and social imagination.”

These social cues are essential to the normal function of human beings. In people with autism, their environment processes their environment in over-stimulation of sight, sound, noises, taste, and touch. “For people with ASD to function properly, their environment must be adapted whenever possible according to the experts. The experts are defined as teachers, parents, behavioralist, and environmental psychologist” according to McAlister and Maguire (2012), and Martin, (2016).

How common is ASD?

“In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported a 1600% increase in the number of individuals between the ages of 6 and 22 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from 1993 to 2013.” (Martin, 2014, p.280) Although, Autism Spectrum Disorder occurrences are on the rise in early childhood, today (2014) at a ratio of  1:68 children are born with ASD (Martin, 2014, p280) the physical classroom has been neglected by researchers to determine the optimal sensory settings for ASU students. 

“In 2012, according to the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, the population of ASD is 9.0 per 1,000 population or 1 in every 110 children.” (Kinnealey and Pfeiffer, (2012) that number is up from the Center for Disease Control (CDC) in 2013, in children with ASD ages 6 years and 22 years old are estimated at 1: 88, with the incidence of boys to girls to be 5:1.

Definitions

Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a disorder identified by a lifelong complex neurodevelopmental disorder. It is characterized by a triad of qualitative impairments in social communication, social interaction, and social imagination.”

Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an impairment in the ability to plan and carry out sensory and motor tasks.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, a US law designed to provide privacy standards to protect patients’ medical records and other health information provided to health plans, doctors, hospitals and other health care providers.

The Ziggurat Model was co-authored by Ruth Aspy, Ph.D., and Barry Grossman, Ph.D., licensed psychologists specializing in assessment and intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders.  The model was created to address concerns and common pitfalls of typical approaches to developing intervention plans, such as incomplete pictures of the person’s challenges and failure to target specific behaviors.

Acronyms

American Journal of Occupational Therapy -AJOT

American Psychiatric Association- APA 

Autism Spectrum Conditions -ASC

Autism Spectrum Disorder- ASD

Centers for Disease Control -CDC

Collaborative Virtual Learning System (CVLE)

High Visual Display – HVD

1nteragency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC)

Independent School District- ISD

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),

National Institute of Health -NIH

Public Law- PL

Sensory Processing Measure (SPM).

What legislation regarding ASD is available

Legislation for research into Autism Spectrum Disorder. Directly quoted from National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), (2006), “2000—Public Law 106-310, The Children’s Health Act of 2000, Title I Autism, instructed the Director of NIH to carry out this section through the Director of NIMH and in collaboration with other agencies that the Director determined appropriate. The Act expands, intensifies, and coordinates activities of the NIH concerning research on autism, including the establishment of not less than 5 centers of excellence that conduct basic and clinical research into autism. The Act also mandated that the Secretary, DHHS establish an Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC) to coordinate autism research and other efforts within the Department. Authority to establish the IACC was delegated to the NIH. The NIMH was designated the NIH lead for this activity. 2006—Public Law 109-416, the Combating Autism Act of 2006, authorized expanded activities related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) related research, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and education. Specifically, the Act authorizes research under NIH to address the entire scope of ASD; authorizes a review of regional centers of excellence for autism research and epidemiology; authorizes activities to increase public awareness, improve use of evidence-based interventions, and increase early screening for autism; and calls on the Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee to enhance information sharing.”  What these two laws mean to the layperson is that the government is paying for research into all Autism related disorders that have been lumped into one umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Summary

            What environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in the classroom? And What are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment? The independent variables are the presence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder student, length of school day, subjects taught in the school day. And the dependent variables are lighting, noise, temperature, smell, tactile, change in routine (perceptions of comfort and well-being). The purpose of this research is to determine the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom. Public Law 106-310 (2000) and Public Law 109-416 (2006) are established to formulate government research and fund five agencies in the discovery and treatment of ASD. In a future study, temperature, smell, and tactile dissemination could be addressed in addition to the perceptions of a child’s well-being and behavior analysis.

Chapter 2- Review of Literature

Articles spanning 2001 to 2019 were utilized, with an emphasis on the more recent eight years whereas possible. The following Keywords:  Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Classroom Environment, Sensory sensitivities, emotional response, classroom performances, behavior modification, Ziggurat Model, are used to define the research parameters. Topics are included in the Body of Reviews, herein.

Body of Reviews

Hanley, Mary, Khairat, Mariam, et al. (2017) Classroom Displays- Attraction or Distraction? Evidence of Impact on Attention and Learning from Children With and Without Autism. Developmental Psychology, 4 May 2017, Vol. 53, No. 7, p1265-1275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000271

The authors used video recordings to tape children’s eye movements in a controlled setting without any high visual displays (HVD) in their background and another group with HVD. In both children with and without autism, had difficulty recalling two stories and two mini-lessons on a worksheet after exposure to HVD backgrounds as part of the presentation. The students with autism did not do as well as students without autism when the HVD was present. It is noted that 8 of the 34 students were tested at their homes in comparable environments of visual displays. This quantitative paper covers time spent looking at teachers face and looking at HVD’s. The math in this paper was hard to understand. I will use it in my research papers to give credence to MacAllister and Maguire’s papers.

Kinnealey, Moya, Pfeiffer, Beth, et al. (2012) Effect of classroom modification on attention and engagement of students with autism or dyspraxia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT), 66, 511-519, http://ddx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2012.004010

The authors offer a solution to poor behaviors in a classroom with an autistic and dyspraxia student, by incorporating halogen lighting and sound-absorbing walls and ceiling material. “Results included increased frequency and stability of attending and engagement and improved classroom performance, and mood.” I will use this summary as a primer to my hypothesis about Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are positively or negatively affected by the classroom environment.

Ma Fernandez-Andres, Inmaculada, Gemma Pastor-Venezuela, & et al. A comparative study of sensory processing in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in the home and classroom environments. (2015) Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38. P202-212. , http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.034

The authors did a study on two groups of children ages five to eight years for Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). They had parents (more mom than dad) and teachers (more women than men) complete questionnaires based on home environment or school classroom environment. They used a Likert-type scale on the questionnaires demographic datum, age, years with ASD contact with student/child, and parental: education, occupation, income, and marital status were all considered as variables in the research. The teachers reported more dysfunction in social participation, touch, and praxis (the ability to plan and organize movement). Other areas to be considered were sensory processing, social participation, and praxis of the ASD group. I will use this data DSM-5 definition of ASD in my research.

Martin, Caren S. (2016) Exploring the impact of the design of the physical classroom environment on young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, Vol 16 No.4 280-298 doi: 10.1111/1471-3802.12092

This is a quantitative report regarding students in preschool to 6th grade with ASD; the ages whereas experts agree are critical in forming a foundation for the students’ well-being and life-long learning practices. There was limited research available at the time the article was written; there were limited resources available for comparisons and most of the data were anecdotal in terms of creating an optimal learning environment. Such anecdotal information came from designers, teachers, and school administrators. This article was concerned with the interactive relationships between humans and the environment as explored by environmental. Psychologist and behavioral psychologist. This article gets precise details with classroom modifications in the comparison of 19 articles summarized. I can use this article as a checklist of expectations in the development of a classroom environment.

McAllister, Keith, Maguire, Barry, (2012) A design model: the Autism Spectrum Disorder Classroom Design Kit British Journal of Special Education ©NASEN

The authors present a study of a classroom environment that is specially equipped to handle students who have “sensory sensitivity to visual, auditory, tactile, proprioceptive, gustatory, and olfactory stimuli.”   The difficulties that architects have with interacting with the teachers and pupils are detailed as architects use pictures to demonstrate the needs of a client, while teachers use words to describe the needs of the child. This study was conducted in nine “key one” classrooms, (ages five to eight), and one “key three” classrooms, (ages 11-16). The purpose was early intervention strategies that would be conducive to the children feeling comfortable, and at ease in their learning environment, The key three was a control unit of expected behaviors, while the key one was working hypothesis to get to stage three developmentally. I think this paper has merit, and I plan to use the information in my own research paper in comparing the three elemental teaching zones for the classroom.

McAllister, Keith, Maguire, Barry, (2012) Design considerations for the autism spectrum disorder-friendly Key Stage 1 classroom. 18 Sep 2012, Https”doi-org.ezproxy.utpb.edu/10.1111/j.1467-9604.2012.01525.x

The authors engaged classrooms in three stages of development over a two year period that broke 16 components into “four category bands; control and safety, classroom character, classroom usage, and classroom physical factors.” The purpose of the design was so that teachers could define their ideal ASD-friendly classroom and discover what worked and didn’t work.  The 16 areas of concentration are spelled out. I will use this article to compare the results of my study to determine if there is a correlation of findings between this study and my study herein, Becker-Smith.

Negilioni, Kappa, and Ramani, Krishna Kumar, (2019) Environmental factors in school classrooms: How they influence visual task demand on children. © Negiloni et al. PLoS One 14(1):e0210299  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210299

 The authors did a quantitive study on the effects of light in a classroom on fixtures such as chalkboard, green and black with white chalk and the students’ desks. They discovered that 62% of the 29 classrooms they evaluated had low lighting [<150lux] so that visual acuity was problematic as determined by light in lumens. The optimal lumens is >150-300lux. The study found that the classroom placement of desks in relationship to chalkboards needed adjustments and the lighting needed to be increased. Once the lighting was increased, assessments with the variables such as letter legibility, stroke-width, and chalkboard contrast we took under advisement.  Also, regular audits of the classroom and recommended eyes screening of the students are necessary. I will use this article as reference material to the placement of a zone of learning between chalkboards and student desks and teacher placement.

Yufang, Xhen, and Jun Yee (2010) Exploring the social competence of students with autism spectrum conditions in a collaborative virtual learning environment- The pilot study. Computers and Education, Science Digest, 54, p 1068-1077. Doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.10.011.

The authors define autism spectrum conditions (ASC) and collaborative virtual learning system (CVLE). The research is done with three students (one girl and two boys) with social competence disorders with ASC, normal average IQ’s, and normal cognitive abilities. There were two scenes; classroom and outside, for the student to engage in using a self-expressive avatar in a 3D social situation. The students were able to use verbal and non-verbal cues in selecting responses to stimuli. They were evaluated on a post-game simulation by describing; what happened, what do you see, and why do you feel, questions about the pictures or scenes in the game. The findings were positive that students with ASC could benefit from using virtual reality games to support their social confidences and have improvement in reciprocal social behaviors. I will use this research to validate the sensory tactile, visual, and oratory aspects of ASD in my research paper.

The reason we need to research this topic is that new to ASD teachers need to know the environmental factor that will occur in their classroom, solutions, and support of peer-to-peer teachers. The latest research study (Becker-Smith) was conducted by me in February 2019, in The form of a questionnaire, a poll, and an opportunity to share personal insights of teaching ADS Students. The study was completed by Megan Becker, B.S. of Saginaw/Eagle Mountain ISD and Ms. Kassidey Challis, M.Ed. of Fort Worth ISD. My hypothesis statement; Are students with Autism Spectrum Disorder positively or negatively affected by the classroom environment? The questionnaires gave me similar results on the qualitative case study. The purpose of this research study is to determine what are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment.

Chapter III- Methodology

Research Designs A Qualitative Study

How can educators prepare their classroom environments for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

  1. Independent Variables, social cues,
  2. Ethics- Is self-contained classrooms presenting the world view of living?
  3. Participants; (Becker-Smith, 2019)
  4. methods of research: inventory of knowledge questionnaire and opinion poll

We will look at how the physical environment of dependent variables such as furniture placement, light, and sound will affect student behavior.  In the research (Becker-Smith), Megan Becker (2019) teacher stated, children, “tend to stim (stim- is a repeated behavior consciously or unconsciously acted out), on lights or reflections created by overhead fluorescent lighting. There is one child who avoids walking on the reflections in the hallway.” She also conferred that natural lighting at different levels in the classroom was best. She has noted that fluorescent light can cause headaches to occur. Kassidey Smith (2019), the teacher stated that different types of lights like florescent will aggravate kids more than other types like ambient (lamps) lighting around a classroom. Smith has found that LED lighting has the least flicker and is not as harsh on the eyes. The dependent variables are lighting, noise, temperature, smell, tactile, change in routine/perceptions. The effects of light and sound barriers are discussed. In the study by Kinnealey and Pfeiffer, et al. (2012), six weeks study of videotaping an empty classroom, for sound in decibels (dB). In sixteen 10 minute intervals of videotaping at various times day and night for the control group and then adding sound barrier treatments for two weeks and halogen lights for the final two weeks “improved the overall sensory comfort, attention, engagement, emotional mood response and improved classroom performance of the four participants/pupils evaluated.”

In another research group, they used four male participants, three of whom were on the spectrum (ASD), and one had Dyspraxia.  “Developmental dyspraxia is a disorder characterized by an impairment in the ability to plan and carry out sensory and motor tasks. Generally, individuals with the disorder appear “out of sync” with their environment. Symptoms vary and may include poor balance and coordination, clumsiness, vision problems, perceptions of comfort and well-being difficulties, emotional and behavioral problems, difficulty with reading, writing, and speaking, poor social skills, poor posture, and poor short-term memory.”  (NIMH, 2019).

The four participants were in the age range of 13 years to 20 years, and the “participants demonstrated classroom-ready behaviors as defined by the school and be free of special health concerns, cognitive impairment, or a psychiatric condition.” (Kinnealey and Pfeiffer (2012)). The participants kept journals and answer pre-post surveys and guided questions by the Occupational Therapist. The findings were conclusive; however, there is much more experimental research that needs to be done in the area of a broader-based sampling of participants, varying sequences of interventions, using a dB meter that has lower than 50dB capabilities.

The Becker-Smith research parameters such as; gender of teacher/aides, student/teacher ratio, the age of teacher, the age range of students, and education of teacher were noted.  In my research, Becker said that the placement of furniture can help control student behaviors by giving them a well-defined workspace. Younger children do well in defined expected areas like their desk and chair. Smith concurred with Becker that some students do better with a specified single area, while others do better in groups.(Becker-Smith, 2019)  This is especially true if they are adapted to using visual cues. Visual cues can include pictures with written labels on a sentence strip. Simple things like Velcro on a desk can help define the parameter or focus for a child of ASD.

In Becker’s classroom, (Becker-Smith, 2019), she has repeatedly observed the phenomena that removing as few as one child from the class due to absence can cause a shift in behaviors, the students usually are quieter. However, when adults focus their attention on other adults, the children start acting out; much like in regular classrooms. Becker and Smith both state that when noise is the over-stimuli, it is beneficial to offer headphones to the affected child or switch the background noise type to quiet or soothing music. They both use headphones on computer stations. Becker said because background noise competes with internal noise, children on ASD need extra time to process responses to questions.  Smith also stated that weather and full-moon stages positively affect children’s behaviors negatively.

Olfactory stimuli such as smells/odors like disinfectant and cleaners can cause discomfort to those with autism. (McAlister & Maguire, 2012).  Temperature, tactile, change in routine can all affect the comfort perceptions of the student’s well-being, and the participants daily journaling helped researches determine the cause-effect parameters of the study.

Yufang, X. (2010). The research is done with three students (one girl and two boys) with social competence disorders with ASC, normal average IQ’s, and normal cognitive abilities. There were two scenes; classroom and outside, for the student to engage in using a self-expressive avatar in a 3D social situation. The students were able to use verbal and non-verbal cues in selecting responses to stimuli. They were evaluated on a post-game simulation by describing; what happened, what do you see, and why do you feel, questions about the pictures or scenes in the game. The findings were positive that students with ASC could benefit from using virtual reality games to support their social confidences and have improvement in reciprocal social behaviors. I have used this research to validate the sensory tactile, visual, and oratory aspects of ASD in the Becker-Smith research paper.

Research Methodology

Ma Fernandez-Andres, I. et al.  did a study on two groups of children ages five to eight years for Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). They had parents (more mom than dad) and teachers (more women than men) complete questionnaires based on home environment or school classroom environment. They used a Likert-type scale on the questionnaires, demographic datum, age, years with ASD contact with student/child, and parental: education, occupation, income, and marital status were all considered as variables in the research. The teachers reported more dysfunction in social participation, touch, and praxis (the ability to plan and organize movement). Other areas to be considered were sensory processing and praxis of the ASD group.

The research parameters for the qualitative case study of Becker-Smith’s group I and II are the gender of teacher/aides, student/teacher ratio, the age of teacher, the age range of students, and education of teacher was noted. Foundation: My grandson is an Autism student in K-5 for Eagle Mountain ISD, and my daughter teaches Autistic students K-5 for Fort Worth ISD, I am interested in why their classrooms are successful. The intent for my research paper is so that new or non-ASD teachers will have a basic understanding of what autism is and how the environment plays a factor in their success or failure as a student. Hypothesis: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder are positively or negatively affected by the classroom environment. Topic: Impact of Environment on Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Essential Question: What environmental stimuli encourage or discourage children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to be successful in the classroom? Independent variables: Presence of an Autism Spectrum Disorder student, length of school day, subjects taught in the school day. Dependent Variables: lighting, noise, temperature, smell, change in routine (perceptions).  Research question: What are the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment? Research purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine the effects on Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder by the classroom environment. Research objective: The objective of this study is to identify the effects of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the classroom environment.

In my qualitative case study of group I and II, the teacher was female, white, and age 36, taught in a structured self-contained classroom, taught a minimum of 5 years but not more than 10 years, taught students with ASD factors and taught in public independent school districts. The variable that was different was the ratio of student: teacher, Group I, 7:2 and Group II, 11:3 respectively.  I propose that additional research is needed with a broader sample of the ethnic background of teachers, ages of teachers, years of teaching experience, type of classroom, private vs. public Independent School Districts and comparable student to teacher ratios in order to see the similarities and differences that sensory output and input has on a students behavior.

One final note is that food (taste/salvatory) was considered as a variable. Becker said food can be a positive reinforcer of behavior if the student doesn’t become over saturated. And Smith said that it is not the food item itself that reinforces behavior, it is the “how” (methods) it is used, that makes the difference.

Research Design: Qualitative Research- The Ziggurat Model

Articles to answer the research questions such as: “How to support the well- being and education of children with ASD in the classroom environment” [from an educator’s perspective.] (Martin, S. 2014 p.281).  Martin states, ‘Sensory Differences’ area and include issues such as responses to sounds, light (including reflections, shadows) or color, temperature, smells (sometimes undetected by others), need for movement (including pacing, rocking), avoidance of movement and sensory exploration of objects, as depicted in the hierarchical approach in the Ziggurat Model.  (Aspy and Grossman, 2013) How it Works. See figure 1. The Ziggurat Model is based on the premise that we must first understand why individuals are engaging in specific behaviors and identify what is reinforcing for them before attempting to teach them new skills.  The Ziggurat approach centers on three assessment tools and a five-level hierarchal system, and it utilizes students’ strengths to address  underlying deficits.    Each level represents an area that must be addressed for an intervention plan to be comprehensive.

Figure 1: The Ziggurat Model

Effects of the Physical Classroom Environment

Architects are employed by schools to decorate the schools’ environment with wall placements and lighting designs, acoustics, and even furniture choices. ASU student physical classrooms are not typically specialized by architects, their classrooms are designed for non-handicapped regular students.  Usually, it is heuristic, anecdotal information from other teachers, parents, and behaviorist that inform the school of classroom accommodations that are needed, and as such are unreliable local knowledge. (Martin, 2014, p281).   

According to Doctoroff, (2001, pp105-109,), “Thoughtful arrangements of space and High noise levels have the potential to impede materials can invite children’s participation in play and communication during social play. In general, noise level contributes to their efforts to organize and utilize materials should be moderate so that children and teachers can also, engage peers, and persist in play. In many instances, be responsive to each other’s social cues. (Ramsey, environmental enrichment or modifications result in 1991).”

     Adaptions to the physical environment can limit or enhance a child’s ability to play and learn at the same time.  Natural or ambient lighting can be an asset or a determent depending on the child’s needs for sensory input.  Noise levels pose a challenge for some children with handicaps like AUS students. Noise-canceling devices or headphones can be given or take away input. Accessibility to all play areas using ramps as needed to aid students with physical limitations should be provided. Doctoroff (2001), sites examples of modifications to play areas and inclusion of mixed play areas to keep student interest elevated. “A classroom play environment that is careful development. Adaptive play for special needs children: planned to meet the developmental, sensorimotor, behavioral, social, and emotional needs of each child has the potential to enrich and extend the play possibilities.)”

Summary

The HIPPA Law required I use (in)formal questionnaire and poll format vs. in-person classroom interviews. Due to the convenience of the Educators involved in the Becker-Smith research, the datum were collected by questionnaires and polls (Becker-Smith, 2019) and accessed to assess the value of interpretations of open-ended questions and an opinion poll.

Martin and Doctoroff have essential revelations about the physical classroom. Martin is in the design elements of the physical classroom and Doctoroff is in the accessories within the physical classroom. Future empirical research evidence is needed to serve the classroom environment for students with ASD. 

The Ziggurat Model was co-authored by Ruth Aspy, Ph.D., and Barry Grossman, Ph.D., licensed psychologists specializing in assessment and intervention for individuals with autism spectrum disorders.  The model was created to address concerns and common pitfalls of typical approaches to developing intervention plans, such as incomplete pictures of the person’s challenges and failure to target specific behaviors.

Chapter IV- Ethics & Human Relationships/Timeline

There are not any threats to the educators reporting the information, they are protected by the Hippa “gag” order. I am physically handing the research documents to the educators and retrieving the finished product. I gained formal consent to approach educators at their place of employment. It took three weeks to get the information questionnaire and poll back from the educators. Two weeks to synthesize and compare data from the poll and questionnaire and one week to write proposal.

Reference[KAC1] 

Aspy, R & Grossman, B.G. (2008) The Ziggurat Model: A framework for Designing Comprehensive Interventions for Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Shawnee Mission, KS. AAPC, Reviewed at http://www.aapcpublishing.net

Avissar, Gilada. Partnerships between Special and Mainstream Schools., ERIC Number:                                                     EJ1184106 Record Type: Journal Publication Date: 2018-Jul Pages: 8 ISSN: EISSN-1471-3802 Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, v18 n3 p149-156 Jul 2018

Becker-Smith, (2019). Becker, Megan. Eagle Mountain Independent School District, Educator, Bailey Boswell Elementary School. Smith, Kassidy M. Fort Worth Independent School District, Educator, Wayside Elementary School.

Boser, Katharina I. Technology Tools for Students with Autism Innovations that Enhance    Independence and Learning http://www.brookespublishing.com/technology-tools and http://archive.brookespublishing.com/documents/boser-technology-tools.pdf    Reviewed Jan. 27, 2019

Conroy, M. A., Asmus, J. M., Boyd, B. A., Ladwig, C. N. & Sellers, J. A. (2007). ‘Antecedent classroom factors and disruptive behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorders.’ Journal of Early Intervention, 30 (1), pp. 19–35

Delmolino, L. & Harris, S. L. (2012). ‘Matching children on the autism spectrum to classrooms: A guide for parents and professionals.’ Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42 (6), pp. 1197–1204. doi: 10.1007/s10803‐011‐1298‐6

Doctoroff, Sandra, Adapting the Physical Environment to Meet the Needs of All Young Children for Play Early Childhood Education, Journal of Research in Special Education Needs, December 2001, Volume 29,  pp 105–109|Winter 2001 Reviewed at https://link-springer-com.ezproxy.utpb.edu/article/10.1023%2FA%3A1012524929004 on Jan. 29, 2019.

Friedlander, D. (2008). ‘Sam comes to school: Including students with autism in your classroom.’ Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 82 (3), pp. 141–144.

Ganz, J. B. (2007). ‘Classroom structuring methods and strategies for children and youth with autism spectrum disorders.’ Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal, 15 (4), pp. 249–260. doi: 10.1080/09362830701655816

Guldberg, K. (2010). ‘Educating children on the autism spectrum: Preconditions for inclusion and notions of “best autism practice” in the early years.’ British Journal of Special Education, 37 (4), pp. 168–174. doi: 10.1111/j.1467‐8578.2010.00482.x 

Hanley, Mary; Khairat, Mariam; Taylor, Korey; et al., Classroom displays-Attraction or distraction? Evidence of impact on attention and learning from children with and without autism. Developmental Psychology, 07/2017, Volume 53, Issue 7 Reviewed Jan. 27,2019

Khare, R. & Mullick, A. (2009). ‘Incorporating the behavioral dimension in designing an inclusive learning environment for autism.’ International Journal of Architectural Research (Archnet‐IJAR), 3 (3), pp. 45–64.

Kinnealey, Moya, Pfeiffer, Beth, Miller, Jennifer, et al. (2012). Effect of classroom modification on Attention and Engagement of Students with Autism or Dyspraxia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66, pp511-519. Reviewed at http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2012.001010

Ludlow, A. K., Wilkins, A. J. & Heaton, P. (2006). ‘The effect of colored overlays on reading ability in children with autism.’ Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36 (4), pp. 507–516. doi: 10.1007/s10803‐006‐0090‐5

Ma Fernandez-Andres, I., Gemma P.V., et al. A comparative study of sensory processing
in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in the home and classroom
environments. (2015) Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38. P202-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.034

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 [KAC1]Unable to invent text on 2nd + lines.