How Hearing Impairment Affects Children in Public General Education Classrooms
Kathy A. Challis
The University of Texas of the Permian Basin
Cell: (682) 313-2192
We will discover the effects of deafness or hearing impairment has a direct impact on learning in a general education classroom. We will discuss accommodations that a teacher can make. The need for educating parents about the three civil rights laws and enabling them to be advocates for their child. We will explore socialization issues for deaf or hearing-impaired students. Real-life examples will be provided where needed from the side of a parent or teacher perspective.
Keywords: IDEA, 504, ADA, Deaf, hearing impaired, socialization,
I have decided to do an introduction on “ What is Hearing Loss in Children” defined by The Center for Disease Control (CDC) article in the following excerpt:
“The signs and symptoms of hearing loss are different for each child. Even if a child has passed a hearing screening before, it is important to look out for the following signs.
- This sometimes is mistaken for not paying attention or just ignoring, but could be the result of a partial or complete hearing loss. (misunderstands)
- Seems to hear some sounds but not others.
- Signs in Children’s Speech is delayed. The speech is not clear.
- Does not follow directions. This sometimes is mistaken for not paying attention or just ignoring, but could be the result of a partial or complete hearing loss.
- Often says, “Huh?”
- Turns the TV volume up too high.
- Children should reach milestones in how they play, learn, communicate, and act.
A delay in any of these milestones could be a sign of hearing loss or other developmental problems. (CDC)
An example of hearing loss in children, I submit the following: When my elder daughter Rose was two years old, my parents came from Oklahoma to Arizona for a visit. They noticed that my daughter would make sounds and I would correctly identify what her need was and give it to her. My parents told me that this was not normal behavior that something was wrong with her, she should be talking well by now. My daughter had significantly chronic inner ear infections and practically lived on antibiotics. My pediatrician never told us about the possibilities of hearing loss that could occur due to infections, in fact, he said I was a hysterical over-anxious mother. I spent the next three years doctor shopping for treatments, different diagnosis, audiological appointments, there were a lot of quacks that called themselves doctors. We finally got a breakthrough– a school for the hearing impaired pilot program, “Ready, Set, Go!”
Rose always had difficulty hearing until about age ten, when the ear infections went away. One explanation was that the auditory tube had not developed correctly and fluid stayed in her ears. We were told that tubes in her ears would not resolve the issue, she would have to grow-out-of-it or drastically they could make a forensic flap surgery for a submucous cleft pallet in the third quadrant of her mouth, the latter of which we declined.
“There are various ways to define hard of hearing. As you plan for each student, keep in mind the following: You may see hearing level measurements from a hearing test that correspond with describing a student as hard of hearing (e.g., mild, moderate). However, these levels do not tell you about a student’s ability to listen and understand. The most common definition of hard of hearing is functional, an individual who relies on and uses listening and spoken language for communication (regardless of measured hearing level). Hard of hearing individuals may identify themselves in different ways. Some may identify as hard of hearing, others as Deaf, and still others may choose not to identify themselves related to their hearing abilities.’ (Center,8).
When a hearing test is performed, the sound volume ranges are noted as decibels (dB), and in pitch or frequency measured in Hertz. Hearing loss measures: Slight/mild 26-40 dB, Moderate 41-60 dB, Severe 61-80 dB, and Profound 81 dB and higher. The range for normal hearing is defined as hearing thresholds of -10 to 15 dB at all frequencies. (Victory).
Intervention in hearing loss may mean; medicine and surgery, cochlear implants, bone-anchored hearing systems, hearing aids, and speech therapy, learn sign language may be needed in addition to family support. (ASHS, Impact) The age of onset hearing loss, degree of hearing loss, age at intervention, and child’s environment are all contributing factors of determining hearing loss in a child. Causes for hearing loss can be genetic, conditions at the time of birth, infections, diseases, noise, and unregulated medicines. (Victory)
After Rose was finally diagnosed with being hearing impaired she was eligible for The Kindergarten pilot program. The pilot program led to a transitional first grade, then regular classes in first grade through sixth with private speech therapists. In the Kindergarten group, Rose was at the lowest level upon entrance, whereas she could make one-word sentences or sounds Mom was ‘m-w’ and Dad was a ‘d’ sounds. She was taught sign-language and to read lips. We provided pictures for people with their names printed beneath to expand her world’s attention. However, Rose continued to fail audiology tests for years, her loss was moderate to severe randomly. We were never informed about laws that helped children with disabilities nor that I could have an advocate in the IEP, and 504 meetings.
Hearing Loss in childhood
Generally, speech and language skills can be underdeveloped that results in lower academic achievement. Communication skills can lead to isolation and poor self-esteem and may restrict vocational choices in the future. (ASHA, WHO) For a child, difficulties in communication may result in feelings of anger, stress, loneliness, and emotional or psychological consequences which may have a profound effect on the family as a whole. (Victory). Families should be offered counseling to help guide them through the process of getting services for their child and to deal with the added pressures of having a child who is deaf or hearing impaired.
The World Health Organization1 (WHO) says that there are approximately 32 million children in our world’s population are living with hearing loss which is considered a disability. (WHO) Hearing affects learning the spoken language, performing academically, and engaging socially. “WHO estimates that 60% of childhood hearing loss could be avoided through prevention in children under 15 years of age.” Estimates of causes of preventable hearing loss is due to infections 31%, birth-related causes 17%, unregulated “Ototoxic” medicines 4% and 8% other, and non-preventable is 40%. (WHO)
Infections like Meningitis & Congenital Rubella causes 19% of childhood hearing loss, other infections are mumps, measles, and whooping cough (WHO & Impact). Genetics are autosomal recessive hearing loss- 70% recessive gene in both parents- not preventable, and autosomal dominate hearing loss 15% of hearing loss gene in one parent, and genetic syndromes, like Downs syndrome, Usher syndrome, Treacher Collins syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Crozun syndrome, and Alport Syndrome and other rare syndromes. (Impact).
“Birth-related causes herpes, rubella cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, lack of oxygen, or blood transfusion and premature births.” A nervous system or brain disorder, use of drugs called ototoxic medications (unregulated antibiotics and pain relievers in foreign countries [affects ELL’s]), maternal infections, diabetes, drug or alcohol use. The
other 8% causes perforated eardrum, serious head injury, loud noise, untreated or frequent otitis media (ear infections), exposure to second-hand smoke, (Impact)
Interacting Access with others- socializing
Interacting socially helps develop language skills, build vocabulary, and provides physical and psychological well being. The hearing challenged child will have difficulty distinguishing chatter from background noises; overhearing or listening in on other people’s conversations, lip-reading, context, and background knowledge to fills-in-the-blanks as background noises that make up one’s surroundings. “If a child does not have access to all the speech sounds they will mishear sounds and words. The words walk, walked, walks. Talk, talked, talks, top, topped, tops may all sound the same.” One will have to use context clues and considerable effort to infer meaning. (ADECT) “The teacher should set up their classroom so that all students can see each other; this often means seating on a U formation.” (Center3)
An example: “As a student with a hearing loss Andrew will require lip-reading, context, and background knowledge to ‘fill in the blanks’ in an attempt to comprehend what was heard. Similar sounds are often confused or missed altogether. For example, the words ‘mother’ and ‘brother’ could be easily mistaken for each other in a sentence and Andrew would have to use the context of the sentence to figure out which word was used. For example, during an English lesson regarding Shakespeare’s play, As You Like It, the teacher could say:
“Let’s think about Duke Senior’s brother and his usurper, Celia’s father. Who here can tell me what roles these two characters have on Duke Senior? How have they helped shape his character?”
If Andrew is having to use context to figure out whether the word ‘brother’ or ‘mother’ was used (he has to relate it to the book and decide which of the two makes more sense in this instance), he cannot be actively listening to the rest of the question. Additionally, a student with reduced background knowledge due to a hearing loss is also unlikely to have been exposed to a word like ‘usurper’ and will expend energy attempting to identify the word. By the time the teacher has finished providing instructions, Andrew is likely unable to participate in the discussion.” (ADECT)
One way a teacher can assist students with hearing issues is to pre-vocabulary keywords like “usurper” and identify the main characters before the actual story being read aloud. Listening effort- Straining to hear and make sense of what is being said is extremely draining on a hearing-impaired child. Non-hearing impaired children use auditory cognitive closure to figure out meaning.
Energy expended on listening
“Students with hearing disorders must spend much of their energy simply identifying the speech sounds as illustrated in the ‘mother vs. brother’ example above. The extra energy required for the identification of speech sounds is a source of fatigue.(ADECT)
Eg: “I stir my coffee with a ( __)oon.” Because of our background knowledge and experience we don’t actually need to hear the /sp/ sound to know that “oon” was actually the word “spoon”. This is called auditory cognitive closure and it occurs without our thinking about it. As previously mentioned, students with hearing loss often have reduced background knowledge with then impacts their ability to repair the auditory message and they are therefore unable to auditorily close the message accurately.”
“Conversely, students with hearing loss use the majority of their cognitive energy on identifying the speech sounds, leaving little for processing and storage. Katherine Bouton, a journalist with hearing loss who publishes in the New York Times, describes cognitive load as “ the brain is so preoccupied with translating the sounds into words that it seems to have no processing power left to search through the storerooms of memory for a response.” (ADECT) .
Additionally, this increased cognitive load also becomes a source of fatigue. Low self-esteem and other factors in academics and social interactions can stem the growth of those with hearing impairment or deafness.
An example of phonics interruptions: “The inability to hear certain sounds can most certainly impact understanding this will have an impact on a student’s spelling, reading, and/or phonemic awareness skill development. Not hearing the quieter and higher-pitched sounds /s/, /sh/, /th/, /f/, /t/ will have an impact on plurals, possessives, ordinals, verb-noun agreement and the subtle nuances of speech (e.g. the cat drinks vs. the cat’s drink).” “Because students with hearing loss use speech reading (lip-reading) cues to fill in gaps of missed information multiple processes must be in place when taking notes, which also increased cognitive load:
– listening to the teacher speak through their personal FM system
– Ignoring even small amounts of background noise
– looking at the board
– processing new information
– writing notes
“This is a challenging if not impossible feat. While students with normal hearing are able to look at their papers and write while listening, students with hearing loss must watch their teacher’s lips and face for supplementary visual cues and then write down what was heard (which may or may not be accurate). However, this requires diverting visual attention from the teacher (for reading lips) and the student may then miss what is being said. By the time the student is writing the initial piece of verbally presented information, the teacher has already moved on to the next piece or topic. Students with hearing loss often state that they miss large pieces of information as they are always trying to ‘keep up’.” (ADECT)
Because of the difficulty with lip reading and writing notes, I would recommend using the FM system and/or providing an aide for academic work. The teacher could also prepare the student with copies of the main highlighted text that she will be covering that day if not the entire lesson notes.
“Feilner and her colleagues found that hard of hearing students reported that hearing their teachers (when using the FM/DM system) and working individually to be the least challenging listening activities during the school day. The most challenging of the listening situations were reported to be group/partner work, interactive lessons, and class discussions – which made up about a 1/3 of the listening day.” (ADECT)
Listening to the PA system of schools can be a challenge to hearing abled persons, and almost impossible to hearing-impaired persons. Having a copy of notes ready for students to follow along with and be able to spotlight key ideas will help students navigate a lesson easier. Sharing the mic, allowing peers to speak directly into the FM System microphone or the teacher re-stating what was said is critical to a hearing-impaired student.
Before the Ready Set Go! Program. I created phonic books with the beginning, middle, and ending sounds. I programmed our TI4/99A computer to speak the sounds and words and show a picture of the word when possible. Rose could practice her speech lessons with the computer and with me. (I had a high-pitched southern accent- and wanted Rose to be able to hear in deeper pitches; hence computer). I worked on reading, mathematics, and natural science with Rose and her baby sister. Fast forward 20+ years I am pleased that hearing-impaired students have more options for hearing devices.
Visual and Auditory Learners: Ensure materials such as videos, computer programs, lectures, and, when appropriate, class discussions are captioned. (Center 3) Teachers should:
- set up their classroom so that all students can see each other; this often means seating in a U formation.
- be sure to face the students when talking.
- repeat and rephrase the information.
- identify who is speaking during class discussions.
- check-in with students to confirm understanding.
- pre-teach new concepts to students prior to classroom use.
- ensure they have the attention of their deaf and hard of hearing students before they begin talking or presenting the information. (Center 3)
Keep in mind that you may observe challenges in the following areas, suggesting that the student may need support:
- Language and speech (e.g., reduced vocabulary or missing tenses/plurals/contractions due to not hearing certain sounds)
- Auditory load (e.g., struggling to understand from the brain doing double duty in trying to hear, understand, and quickly respond)
- Socialization and inclusion (e.g., becoming stressed from missing information and then withdrawing from both academic and social interactions)
- Access to the curriculum (e.g., falling behind from missing key information shared while the teacher faces the board or walks around the classroom)(Center8)
Signs of Life- Bridging the gap between the Deaf World and the Hearing World. Posted on February 27, 2013, by signsoflifeasl. There are three major forms of Sign Language currently used in the United States: American Sign (ASL), Pidgin Signed English (PSE), and Signed Exact English (SEE).
ASL is used by many deaf in the United States, thus its use promotes assimilation into the Deaf Community. ASL is a visual language, and speech-reading or listening skills are not needed to learn ASL fluently. Because of its visual nature, ASL is very graphic, and understanding of concepts can be promoted more easily. It has developed over time through usage by deaf individuals and is a free-flowing, natural language. ASL is a language complete in itself. It is not usually written or spoken, but can be translated, just like French or German, to English and vice versa. ASL has its own syntax and grammar. It does count as a language credit at University level because it is a separate language. ASL usually follows the TIME + TOPIC + COMMENT structure.
PSE is probably the most widely used communication mode in the United States among deaf and hearing persons who work with them. Many teachers use PSE or Signed English. The vocabulary is drawn from ASL but follows English word order. Words that do not carry information (e.g. to, the, am, etc.) are often dropped, as are the word endings of English (e.g. -ed, -s, -ment, etc.). This means that the signer can easily speak while signing since it is possible to keep pace with spoken English. It is simpler to learn than ASL or SEE, since one does not need to include all English endings, nor does one to master the structure or idioms of ASL.
SEE is based upon signs drawn from ASL and expanded with words, prefixes, tenses, and endings to give a clear and complete visual presentation of English. The ASL sign for the concept of “pretty, lovely, beauty, beautiful” and other such synonyms is retained for beauty, initialized with P for pretty, L for lovely, and the suffix -ful is added for beautiful. The child thus has an opportunity to develop an expanded vocabulary. The learning of this English based sign system may be more comfortable for English-speaking parents. Maximum use of residual hearing and speech-reading is encouraged since the signs match the elements of spoken English. SEE encourages the incorporation of ASL features to show intonation visually. SEE does require more signing time that PSE, because of the word endings and prefixes, etc. Over-concentration on signing every word may lead to “colorless” signing.” (Forms)
When Rose was in the Kindergarten pilot program, “Ready, Set, Go!” the method of sign language used is now obsolete. As an adult, Rose learned American Sign Language so that she could communicate with her hearing-impaired students in her SPED Robotics/Technology classrooms.
How a hearing impaired or deaf student can be accommodated in the classroom. Teaching Strategies by the Australian Disability Clearinghouse on Education and Training offers Teachers the following guidelines: “There is a range of inclusive teaching strategies that can assist all students to learn but there are some specific strategies that are useful in teaching a group that includes students with a hearing impairment:
- Encourage students with a hearing loss to seat themselves toward the front of the lecture theatre where they will have an unobstructed line of vision. This is particularly important if the student is using an interpreter, lip-reading, relying on visual clues, or using a hearing aid which has a limited range. Be aware that some students may not be comfortable with this suggestion or have alternate strategies. Respect their choices.
- Use assistive listening devices such as induction loops if these are available in the lecture theatre. Hearing aids may include transmitter/receiver systems with a clip-on microphone for the lecturer. If using such a microphone, it is not necessary to change your speaking or teaching style. (Hearing Loops are an assistive listening technology for people with hearing loss. At the push of a button, most hearing aids can wirelessly receive the sound from a public venue that has a hearing loop installed via it’s internal t-coil or telecoil.)
- Ensure that any background noise is minimized.
- Repeat clearly any questions asked by students in the lecture or class before giving a response.
- Do not speak when facing the blackboard. Be aware that mustaches, beards, hands, books, or microphones in front of your face can add to the difficulties of lip-readers. Students who lip-read cannot function in darkened rooms. You may need to adjust the lighting in your teaching environment. If a sign interpreter is employed, follow the hints for working with a sign interpreter.
- It is difficult for a student watching an interpreter to also take notes from an overhead or blackboard. An interpreter is unable to translate concurrently both your words and any information given on an overhead. It is important therefore that all information should also be available as handouts.
- Provide written materials to supplement all lectures, tutorials, and laboratory sessions. Announcements made regarding class times, activities, fieldwork, industry visits, etc, should be given in writing as well as verbally.
- Allow students to record lectures or, preferably, make available copies of your lecture notes. Flexible delivery of teaching materials via electronic media is also particularly helpful for students who have difficulty accessing information in the usual ways. For students with a hearing loss, new technology – and the internet in particular – can be used to bridge many gaps.
- Ensure that lists of the subject-specific jargon and technical terms which students will need to acquire are made available early in the course. If interpreters or captioning are being used as an adjustment, make this list available to the professionals providing the service as early as possible.
- Any videos or films used should, where possible, be captioned. When this is not possible, you will need to consider alternative ways for students with hearing impairment to access the information.
- In tutorials, assist students who lip-read by having the student sit directly opposite you and ensure, if possible, that they can see all other participants. Control the discussion so that only one person is speaking at a time.
- Students with hearing loss, especially those with associated speech issues, may prefer to have another student present their tutorial papers.
- Language abilities are often affected by hearing loss, depending on the age of onset. Students who acquired their hearing loss early in life may have literacy issues. In some cases, providing reading lists well before the start of a course for students with a hearing loss can be beneficial. Consider tailoring these reading lists when necessary, and guide key texts.
- Allow assignments or reviews to be completed on an in-depth study of a few texts rather than a broad study of many.
- Where live remote captioning is provided, a transcript of the session can usually be assessed within 24 hours. It is recommended that these be emailed directly to the student as an accurate record of reference.” (Forms)
The above Australian guidelines are cross-culture to the USA teachers. Until COVID-19 distance learning, I didn’t know that live streaming with closed captioning even existed for everyday non-technical persons. I thought a lot of expensive equipment needed to be purchased, thankfully, I was wrong. The last point: “ Using interpreters and live remote captioning may require some adjustments in teaching styles, particularly the pace of the learning. Consult with the providers of the service early to identify any potential changes” caught my attention. Both my teacher daughters are creating pre-recorded videos of lessons for the Fall 2020 school term because schools will be shut down for face-to-face interaction, leaving virtual learning in its place. When I did my first-grade student teaching practice in 1992, I recorded video and used the closed captioning settings to record most of what was being said accurately. All students benefitted from my videos of me and themselves doing assignments on film.
Furthermore, Teachers should:
- model effective interactions with deaf and hard of hearing students by engaging them in personal conversations, communicating directly with them, and using respectful and inclusive language about them.
- create icebreaker opportunities that encourage interaction between deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing students.
- develop team-based activities and projects for which deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing students collaborate.
- encourage deaf and hard of hearing students to develop self-advocacy skills and to be responsible for communicating their needs. (Center 2).
Middle school and high school are difficult for teenagers because of social interactions through small group identity or peer packs (a personal network of friends). Sign language classes or clubs at school will help all students become more tolerant of different student abilities. Teachers can foster self-esteem in students with sincere praise on work achieved for all students, but especially those who are deaf or hearing impaired.
Regardless of a student’s hearing levels, it is important to think about the following planning considerations:
- Don’t overlook a student’s need for an IEP or 504 plan because the student “appears to hear.” Ensure the student has the accommodations and services to effectively access and participate in the school environment.
- Get everyone on board to facilitate access to “incidental” information that is shared informally throughout the school day (e.g., announcements, school news, social activities, schedule changes).
- Keep in mind that the planning needs of a student with a cochlear implant may be similar to a student who is hard of hearing.
- Closely monitor students who have a hearing in only one ear (unilateral hearing) to determine the need for possible support. (Center8).
Legal responses to Hearing Impaired Disabilities
Working with parents to advocate for their child’s civil rights is critical to the development of a hearing impaired or deaf students’ education and life opportunities. It’s sad but, true that if you are not the advocate for your child, no one else will push for the best services or all the different types of services available for your child. The reason behind this is money- or lack thereof, The squeaky wheel gets the oil is the same as the parents who advocates the loudest (not in volume) gets the attention required to make a difference for their child.
“A teacher’s role in the IEP, 504 plan, and/or ADA process is to: participate in any meetings in which IEP, 504 plan, or ADA auxiliary aids and services may be discussed.be ready to supply pertinent data and documentation, such as test scores, discipline referrals, and observational information. implement the provisions of the IEP, 504 plan, or ADA auxiliary aids and services accommodations that apply to the classroom or school environment.”(Center 1)
IDEA requires schools to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for the child. This is a written description of the special education and related services needed to help the child access the general education curriculum as well as extracurricular activities.
What is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act? Date Updated: 04/30/2019
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the federal law that supports special education and related service programming for children and youth with disabilities. It was originally known as the Education of Handicapped Children Act, passed in 1975. In 1990, amendments to the law were passed, effectively changing the name to IDEA. In 1997 and again in 2004, additional amendments were passed to ensure equal access to education.
This federal legislation is designed to ensure that children with disabilities be granted a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment (LRE). IDEA does the following:
- Ensures that all children with an identified disability receive special education and related services to address their individual needs.
- Ensures that children with disabilities be prepared for employment and independent living.
- Ensures that the rights of children with disabilities and their families are protected under the law.
- Assesses and ensures the efforts of institutions providing services to persons with disabilities.
- Provides assistance to states, localities, federal agencies, and educational service agencies in providing for the education of children with disabilities. (IDEA)
“The goal of a 504 plan is to remove barriers and allow students with disabilities to participate freely in public education or schools that receive public funding. It seeks to level the playing field so those students can safely pursue the same opportunities as everyone else.“ (Mauro, T)
504 plans support a wide range of accommodations that may include preferential seating, amplification, interpreting, notetaking, captioning, and/or others in order to assist the student in accessing educational programming. Accommodations may be implemented and monitored by a case manager.
(4) All qualified persons with disabilities within the jurisdiction of a school district are entitled to a free appropriate public education. The ED Section 504 regulation defines a person with a disability as “any person who: (i) has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities, (ii) has a record of such an impairment, or (iii) is regarded as having such an impairment.” 3
For elementary and secondary education programs, a qualified person with a disability is a person with a disability who is:
- of an age during which it is mandatory under state law to provide such services to persons with disabilities;
- of an age during which persons without disabilities are provided such services; or
- entitled to receive a free appropriate public education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
In general, all school-age children who are individuals with disabilities as defined by Section 504 and IDEA are entitled to FAPE.
Under the ADA, schools must provide auxiliary aids and services, such as qualified interpreters, captioning, and assistive listening devices, to ensure communications with deaf and hard of hearing individuals are as effective as communications with others. Teachers should work with principals to ensure students have complete access to educational programming. (Center5)
Title II – Public Services: State and Local Government
• Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability by “public entities” such as state and local government agencies.
• Requires public entities to make their programs, services, and activities accessible to individuals with disabilities.
• Outlines requirements for self-evaluation and planning; making reasonable modifications to policies, practices, and procedures where necessary to avoid discrimination; identifying architectural barriers; and communicating effectively with people with hearing, vision, and speech disabilities. Regulated and enforced by the U.S. Department of Justice. http://www.ada.gov (ADA).
Advocating by family engagement in knowing what the above laws mean for their children is essential for a disabled child to receive services and free education in the least restrictive environment (FAPE).
“By welcoming the contributions of parents and working with them to support their deaf or hard of hearing child, you will be helping your students succeed.
Talk to parents about their child’s strengths, abilities, likes, and dislikes.
Ask parents what strategies they use at home for communication.
Keep a communication notebook to discuss the school day or events at home.
Seek out parents’ opinions on strategies to involve their children in classroom activities.
Ask parents to volunteer in the classroom or on a field trip.
A student will have many teachers, but parents are with their child throughout his or her educational journey.” (Center4).
- (ADA) New on ADA.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2020, from http://www.ada.gov/
- (ASHA) ASHA-AIS-Hearing-Loss-Development-Effects. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://www.asha.org/uploadedFiles/AIS-Hearing-Loss-Development-Effects.pdf
- (CDC) What is Hearing Loss in Children? (2020, June 08). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hearingloss/facts.html
- Center, G. U. (n.d.). Accommodating Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in School. Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go/tips-to-go-bookmarks—supporting-educational-success/accommodating-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-students-in-schools.html
- Center, G. U. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go/tips-to-go-bookmarks—supporting-educational-success/different-abilities-unique-needs-supporting-learning-in-the-classroom.html
- Center, G. U. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go/tips-to-go-bookmarks—supporting-educational-success/educational-success-for-your-students—and-you.html
- Center, G. U. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go/tips-to-go-bookmarks—supporting-educational-success/fostering-social-connections-teachers-make-a-difference.html
- Center, Gallaudet University, and Clerc. “Tips to Go Bookmarks.” Tips to Go, 17 July 2020, www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go.html. https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go/tips-to-go-bookmarks—supporting-educational-success.html
- Center, G. U. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go/tips-to-go-bookmarks—supporting-educational-success/reaching-out-parents-as-partners.html
- Center, Gallaudet University, and Clerc. “Tips to Go Bookmarks.” Tips to Go, 17 July 2020, www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go.html/TIPSTOGO1.pdf
- Center, Gallaudet University, and Clerc. “Tips to Go Bookmarks.” Tips to Go, 17 July 2020, www3.gallaudet.edu/clerc-center/tips-to-go.html/tipstogo-2.pdf)
- FAPE- Free Appropriate Public Education under Section 504. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/edlite-FAPE504.html
- (FORM) Forms of Sign Language: ASL vs. PSE vs. SEE. (2013, February 28). Retrieved from https://signsoflifeasl.wordpress.com/2013/02/27/3-forms-of-sign-language-asl-vs-pse-vs-see/
- (IDEA) What is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act? (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://www.washington.edu/doit/what-individuals-disabilities-education-act
- (Impact) The Impact of Hearing Loss. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://successforkidswithhearingloss.com/for-professionals/impact-of-hearing-loss-child/
- Inclusive Teaching: Deaf and Hard of Hearing. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://www.adcet.edu.au/inclusive-teaching/specific-disabilities/deaf-hearing-impaired/
- Mauro, T. (n.d.). Could Your Child Benefit From a 504 Plan? Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://www.verywellfamily.com/what-is-a-504-plan-3104706
- Victory, J. (2020, May 01). Hearing loss in children: Everything you need to know. Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://www.healthyhearing.com/help/hearing-loss/children
- (WHO) Pbd/deafness/world-hearing-day/WHD2016_Brochure. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2020, from https://www.who.int/pbd/deafness/world-hearing-day/WHD2016_Brochure_EN_2.pdf